The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

Presentation to AAAC October 13, 2006 Anthony Tyson Director, LSST Physics Department, Univ. of California, Davis

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
History: The need for a facility to survey the sky Wide, Fast and Deep, has been recognized for many years. 1996-2000 “Dark Matter Telescope” Emphasized mapping dark matter 2000- “LSST” Emphasized a broad range of science from the same multiwavelength survey data

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Wide+Deep+Fast: Etendue
Primary mirror diameter Field of view

0.2 degrees 10 m Keck Telescope 3.5 degrees

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 3

LSST survey of 20,000 sq deg • 4 billion galaxies with redshifts
• Time domain: 100,000 asteroids 1 million supernovae 1 million gravitational lenses gamma ray bursters new phenomena
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 4

Relative Etendue (= AΩ )
320 280 240
2 Etendue  (m  deg2)

15 sec exposures 2000 exposures per field

200 160 120 80 40 0

All facilities assumed operating100% in one survey

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Opening Time Domain

200 Time (x10) Stellar Stellar ( J band ) 160 Galactic (x2)

Relative Figure of Merit












AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST Survey
• 6-band Survey: ugrizy 320–1050 nm Frequent revisits: grizy • Sky area covered: >20,000 deg2 0.2 arcsec / pixel

• Each 10 sq.deg FOV revisited ~2000 times • Limiting magnitude: 27.7 AB magnitude @5σ 25 AB mag /visit = 2x15 seconds • Photometry precision: 0.01 mag requirement, 0.001 mag goal

Massively Parallel Astrophysics
– Dark matter/dark energy via weak lensing

– – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Dark matter/dark energy via baryon acoustic oscillations Dark energy via supernovae Dark energy via counts of clusters of galaxies Galactic Structure encompassing local group Dense astrometry over 20000 sq.deg: rare moving objects Gamma Ray Bursts and transients to high redshift Gravitational micro-lensing Strong galaxy & cluster lensing: physics of dark matter Multi-image lensed SN time delays: separate test of cosmology Variable stars/galaxies: black hole accretion QSO time delays vs z: independent test of dark energy Optical bursters to 25 mag: the unknown 5-band 27 mag photometric survey: unprecedented volume Solar System Probes: Earth-crossing asteroids, Comets, transNeptunian objects
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 9

LSST Ranked High Priority
• • •

NRC Astronomy Decadal Survey NRC New Frontiers in the Solar System NRC Quarks-to-Cosmos

• • •

Quantum Universe Physics of the Universe Dark Energy Task Force + P5

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST Funding Timeline
• • • • • • • • FY-2004 FY-2005 FY-2006 FY-2007 FY-2009 FY-2009 FY-2010 FY-2014 R&D proposal to NSF AST $14.2M LSST R&D grant DOE CD-0 Ground-based dark energy LSST NSF MREFC Proposal submitted NSB moves LSST to readiness phase DOE MIE funding begins for camera NSF MREFC award to begin construction First light and commissioning
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 12

LSST Probes Dark Energy and Dark Matter

     

Weak lensing (multiple probes) Baryon acoustic oscillations Counts of massive structures vs redshift Supernova cosmology (complementary to JDEM) Mass power spectrum on very large scales tests CDM paradigm Shortest scales of dark matter clumping tests models of dark matter particle physics

The LSST survey will address all with a single dataset!

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Weak Gravitational Lensing Heritage
1983-2000 Weak gravitational lens experiments using Blanco telescope 2000 First detection of cosmic shear 2000-2005 Deep Lens Survey 1996- Emerging need for an all-sky deep multi-wavelength facility with controllable systematic errors Today, several distinct groups worldwide are pursuing weak lens cosmology on a variety of telescopes.

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006

2-degree by 2-degree mass map of one of five Deep Lens Survey fields. All four clusters examined in this field have been verified with spectroscopy and X-ray observations (2005) 15

20000 sq.deg WL survey shear power spectra
z=1100 z=3.2 z=3.0 z=0.6 z=0.2 Blanco shear systematics floor LSST shear systematics floor Require: shear error < 0.0002 Presentation AAAC
October 13, 2006 16

z=3.2 0.01 shear

z=0.6 z=0.2

0.001 shear

0.001 shear

Addressing DETF Critical Issues

WL shear reconstruction errors

Show control to better than required precision using existing new facilities 

 Photometric
 

redshift errors

Develop robust photo-z calibration plan  Undertake world campaign for spectroscopy  Develop and test precision flux calibration technique 

Photometry errors

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Subaru 10 sec Exposures
13 arcmin (l = 1000)


PSF corrected

Single exposure in 0.65 arcsec seeing

<shear> <shear> = 0.04 = 0.07

<shear> <shear> < 0.0001 = 0.000013

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Residual Subaru Shear Correlation
Test of shear systematics: Use faint stars as proxies for galaxies, and calculate the shear-shear correlation. Compare with expected cosmic shear signal. Conclusion: 500 exposures per sky patch will yield negligible PSF induced shear systematics. Wittman (2005)

Cosmic shear signal

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Photometric Redshifts
Calibration: angular correlation between photo-z and spectroscopic samples enables high precision photo-z:

Precision calibration plan: underway. Likely will exceed requirements.
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 20

12-band Super Photo-z Training Set
Using angular correlations this training set enables LSST photo-z error calibration to better than required precision

Systematic error: 0.003(1+z) calibratable Need 20,000 spectroscopic redshifts

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Baryon Acoustic Oscillations
CMB (z = 1080)
RS~140 Mpc

BAO (z < 3)

Standard Ruler Two Dimensions on the Sky Angular Diameter Distances Three Dimensions in Space-Time Hubble Parameter AAAC Presentation
October 13, 2006 22

LSST Precision on Dark Energy
Zhan 2006

WL+BAO and Cluster counts give separate estimates. Both require wide sky area deep survey.
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 23

Dark Energy Precision vs time
Separate DE Probes Combined

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST Project Organization
• The LSST is a public/private project with public support through NSFAST and DOE-OHEP. Private support is devoted primarily to project infrastructure and fabrication of the primary/tertiary and secondary mirrors, which are long-lead items.
System Scientist &

Board of Directors

John Schaefer

Anthony Tyson Steve Kahn, Deputy

Science Advisory Committee (SAC
Michael Strauss Science Working Groups )

Project Manager
Donald Sweeney Victor Krabbendam, Deputy

System Engineering
William Althouse

NSF support is proposed to fund the telescope. DOE support is proposed to fund the camera. Both agencies would contribute to data management and operations.

Chair of Science Council
Zeljko Ivezic

Ed & Pub Outreach
Suzanne Jacoby

Simulation & Data
Philip Pinto

System Calibration
David Burke

Steven Kahn, Sci. Kirk Gilmore, Mgr.

Charles Claver, Sci. Victor Krabbendam, Mgr.

Data Management
Timothy Axelrod, Sci. Jeffrey Kantor, Mgr.

LSST Organization Chart

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006

The LSST Corporation
• The project is overseen by the LSSTC, a 501(c)3 non-profit Arizona corporation based in Tucson. LSSTC is the recipient of private funding, and is the Principal Investigator organization for the NSF D&D funding.

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSSTC member institutions
Brookhaven National Laboratory Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Johns Hopkins University Las Cumbres Observatory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory National Optical Astronomy Observatory Pennsylvania State University Research Corporation Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Stanford University University of Arizona University of California, Davis University of California, Irvine University of Illinois University of Pennsylvania University of Washington

16 current member institutions. Google Corp. has applied. More pending. + Several foreign groups.

Foreign prospective members

• German university group (led by Matthias Steinmetz) • French group (IN2P3 Collaboration) • UK university group (led by Andrew Lawrence) • European Southern Observatory (Catherine Cesarsky, Dir)

LSST integrates Astronomy & Physics communities


LSST Project

particle physics



AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST Science Collaborations

1. Supernovae: M. Wood-Vasey (CfA) 2. Weak lensing: D. Wittman (UCD) and B. Jain (Penn) 3. Stellar Populations: Abi Saha (NOAO) 4. Active Galactic Nuclei: Niel Brandt (Penn State) 5. Solar System: Steve Chesley (JPL) 6. Galaxies: Harry Ferguson (STScI) 7. Transients/variable stars: Shri Kulkarni (Caltech) 8. Large-scale Structure/BAO: Andrew Hamilton (Colorado) 9. Milky Way Structure: Connie Rockosi (UCSC) 10. Strong gravitational lensing: Phil Marshall (UCSB)

171 signed on already, from member institutions and project team.

LSST optical design has a 3.5o FOV, 8.4m primary, <0.2 arcsec PSF from l=320-1050nm


64cm focal plane

3 refractive lenses
Tertiary Primary
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Mirror Designs
Primary/Tertiary Mirror
• Unique Monolithic Mirror: Primary and Tertiary Surfaces Polished Into Single Substrate Cast Borosilicate Design

8.4 Meters Primary Surface Tertiary Surface 0.9 M

Secondary Mirror
• Thin Meniscus Low Expansion Glass Design for Secondary Mirror 102 Support Actuators

Mirror Cell (Yellow)

Secondary Mirror

Baffle (Black)

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006

The telescope baseline design is complete

Camera and Secondary assembly Finite element analysis Carrousel dome Altitude over azimuth configuration
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 33

The LSST carrousel dome is 30m in diameter
30 meters

The LSST will be on El Penon peak in Northern Chile in an NSF compound

1.5m photometric calibration telescope

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


The LSST camera will have 3 gigapixels in a 64cm diameter image plane
Raft Tower L3 Lens Shutter L1/L2 Housing

L1 Lens L2 Lens Filter in light path

Five Filters in stored location Camera Housing
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 36

Camera body with five filters and shutter
Back Flange

Filter Changer rail

Filter Carousel

Shutter Manual Changer access port Filter Changer
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 37

The LSST Focal Plane
Wavefront Sensors (4 locations) Guide Sensors (8 locations)

Wavefront Sensor Layout


Focal plane Sci CCD

40 mm

Curvature Sensor Side View Configuration

3.5 degree Field of View (634 mm diameter)

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


The basic building block for the camera is the raft tower
3 x 3 CCD Sensor Array Raft Assembly 4Kx4K Si CCD Sensor CCD Carrier Thermal Strap(s)

Flex Cable & Thermal Straps

Electronics Cage


AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 39

The LSST CCD Sensor
16 segments/CCD 200 CCDs total 3200 Total Outputs

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


The LSST Data Management LSST generates 6GB of raw data every 15 seconds that must be calibrated, processed, cataloged, indexed, and queried, etc. often in real time LSST Data Management Model
Infrastructure  Hardware Computers, disks, data links, ,,, Middleware  Interface wrapper Device drivers, system management,… Applications  Science Image processing, database queries, …
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 41

Data Management is a major part of the LSST mission

The LSSTC partnership has DOE national labs (LLNL, SLAC, BNL), NSF centers (NCSA/UI-UC), US industry (Google, Inc.) and academic centers (Caltech, Stanford, Harvard) to create and operate a WorldClass data management center

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST imaging & operations simulations

Sheared HDF raytraced + perturbation + atmosphere + wind + optics + pixel

LSST Operations, including real weather data: coverage + depth
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 43

Performance verification using Subaru 15 sec imaging

Project Management Status • • • • • • • Reference Design complete Full WBS with dictionary and task breakdown Task-based estimate complete Integrated cost/schedule complete NSF MREFC proposal for submission ~Dec’06 NSF Concept Design Review planned in FY07 DOE CD-1 review planned in FY08

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Timeline and budget for the LSST
Fiscal Years

Submit NSF MREFC Proposal NSF and CD-2a funding begins CD-1 51 months
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

First light
2014 2015


Design and Development
(and early procurement)

Construction Commissioning Operations

Requests (Then Year USD): NSF DOE Private/other $15M $20M $10M $263M $109M $ 66M $15M/yr $15M/yr $15M/yr

Escalated task-based estimate with 30% contingency
AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006 45

Why Now? – Broad science community interest – Synergy with 2013- multi-wavelength facilities – Multiple endorsements – Systematic risks addressed – Technically ready

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Q&A slides

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


DE Science Drives Short Exposures
• • • • • Weak lensing requires exquisite control of shape systematics. One needs hundreds of exposures per filter per sky patch for chopping. Short exposures allow us to optimally weight. Many exposures with sky rotated on detector permit another chop. These require high etendue and short exposures.

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Near Earth Objects
• Inventory of solar system is incomplete • LSST would get orbits of nearly all NEOs larger than 140m (per congressional mandate) • Demanding project: requires mapping the sky down to 24th magnitude every few days, individual exposures not to exceed 15 sec • Uses same sky tiling cadence optimal for dark energy

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Difference imaging

Deep Lens Survey

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Full sampling improves linking

per visit

LSST baseline cadence using r band data only

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Formation of our Galaxy and Group


AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


Optical flashes


Deep Lens Survey

AAAC Presentation October 13, 2006


LSST will use existing NSF-funded fiber optic networks

Typical data rate required ~2GB/sec
Cerro La Pachon Serena

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