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Flash Butt Welding
Lesson Objectives When you finish this lesson you will understand: • The flash and butt welding process for plain carbon steel • The weld parameters which must be controlled to get good welds • Typical flash/butt weld defects Learning Activities 1. View Slides; 2. Read Notes, 3. Listen to lecture 4. Do on-line workbook
Keywords Flash Weld (AC), Butt Weld (DC), Flashing Current, Upset Current, Upset Force, Upset Velocity, Upset Distance, Forging Temperature, Linear Platen Motion, Parabolic Platen Motion, Continuous Acceleration Platen Motion, Flat Spots, Penetrators
Introduction to Flash Welding
[Reference: Welding Process Slides, The Welding Institute]
p. Volume 2.583. AWS] .Basic Steps in Flash Welding (a) Electrodes (c) Position and Clamp the Parts Flash (b) (d) Upset and Terminate Current Apply Flashing Voltage and Start Platen Motion [Reference: Welding Handbook.
. (7) Metal strip in rolling mills. (6) Car wheel rims. (2) Chain links. (3) Railway lines. (4) Window frames. The Welding Institute] Typical applications: (1) Butt welding of matching sections. (5) Aero-engine rings.Equipment Example of Flash Welding [Reference: Welding Process Slides.
Advantages of Flash Welding • Flexible cross sectioned shapes • Flexible positioning for similar cross section parts • Impurities can be removed during upset acts • Faying surface preparation is not critical except for large parts • Can weld rings of various cross sections • Narrower heat-affected zones than those of upset welds .
Limitations of Flash Welding • Produce unbalance on three-phase primary power lines • The ejected molten metal particles present a fire hazard • Require special equipment for removal of flash metal • Difficult alignment for workpieces with small cross sections • Require almost identical cross section parts .
p. Volume 2. AWS] .Common Types of Flash Welds Axially Aligned Weld Dies Fixed Platen Movable Platen Cross Section After Welding Transformer [Reference: Welding Handbook.589.
Volume 2. p.589.) Miter Weld Fixed Platen Movable Platen Cross Section After Welding Transformer [Reference: Welding Handbook.Common Types of Flash Welds (CONT. AWS] .
AWS] .) Ring Weld Shunt Current Fixed Platen Movable Platen Cross Section After Welding Transformer [Reference: Welding Handbook. p.589.Common Types of Flash Welds (CONT. Volume 2.
Typical Mill Forms and Products of Upset Welding [Reference: Welding Handbook. p. AWS] .600. Volume 2.
Flash Welding.Systems • Electrical • Force Application Savage. Welding Journal March 1962 .
Applications Wheel Truck Rims Ball Bearing Raceways Bar Welding Strip Welding During Continuous Processing Pipelines .
Schematic of Typical Flash Weld Cycle Savage. Flash Welding. Welding Journal March 1962 .
Initial Flashing Partial Burn-off
Stage 1 - Heat Soaking
Stage 2 - Steady State
Stage 3 - Heat out
Best Region For Upset
Nippes, Temp Dist During Flash Welding, Welding Journal, Dec 1951
In Steady State, the Heat into the HAZ Equals the Heat Out
Stage 3 Occurs When More Heat Flows Out than is Flowing In
Upset in the Steady State .Stage 2 Region Forge Temp At Upset Temp Short Time After Long Time After .
Welding Journal. Cooling Rates in Flash Welding. July 1959 .Nippes.
At Moment Of Upset & Short Time Thereafter Temp Temp Temp Time Time Time Temperature vs Time As a Function Of Distance From Interface At Moment of Upset Temp Time .
Welding Journal. Cooling Rates in Flash Welding.Nippes. July 1959 .
Factors Which Effect Extent of Stable Stage 2 • Material Electrical & Thermal Conductivity • Platen Motion During Flashing • Initial Clamping Distance • Preheat • Material Geometry .
Electrical & Thermal Conductivity Instantaneous Temperature Temperature HAZ Burnoff Dist from Instantane ous Inte rface High Resistance = More I2R Heating Low Thermal Conductivity = Less Heat Out • More Rapid Heating • Longer Stage 2 • Higher Temperature • Wider HAZ .
Wide HAZ Narrow HAZ Oxides Trapped At Interface Oxides Forced To Flashing .
Platen Motion Platen Displacement Continuous Acceleration Linear Parabolic Flashing Time Continuous Acceleration lead to Stub Out .
Welding Journal.Nippes. Temp Dist During Flash Welding. Dec 1951 .
Effect of Increased Velocity Higher Velocity Instantaneous Temperature Temperature Burnoff Dist from Instantane ous Inte rface .Linear Flashing .
Dec 1951 .Parabolic Flashing Nippes. Welding Journal. Temp Dist During Flash Welding.
Dec 1951 .Temperature Comparison of Linear and Parabolic Flashing Nippes. Temp Dist During Flash Welding. Welding Journal.
Initial Clamping Distance Instantaneous Temperature Temperature Burnoff Dist from Instantane ous Inte rface Closer Initial Clamping • Shorter Stage 2 • More Burnoff to Establish Steady State • Steeper Temperature Gradient .
Effect of Preheat Instantaneous Temperature Temperature Burnoff Dist from Instantane ous Inte rface Beneficial Larger HAZ .
Thicker Material Instantaneous Temperature Temperature Burnoff Dist from Instantane ous Inte rface Thicker Material is more of a Heat Sink .
Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min. What would you suggest? . we went back to the faster platen motion and told the night shift guy to keep his hands off. but the weld still seems to be too cold.): • OK.
DC Butt Welding .
598. p. AWS] .Introduction to Upset Welding To Welding Transformer Clamping Die Heated Zone Clamping Die Upsetting Force Stationary Part Movable Part Finished Upset Weld [Reference: Welding Handbook. Volume 2.
Schematic of Typical Butt Weld Cycle Medar Technical Literature .
How would welding steels containing large manganese sulfide inclusions be effected by this? .): • Because the part are first touching as DC current is applied in butt welding. large current levels occur immediately.Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.
FLASH/BUTT WELD DISCONTINUITIES MECHNICAL • Misalignment • Poor Scarfing • Die Burns HEAT AFFECTED ZONE • Turned Up Fibers (Hook Cracks) • HAZ Softening CENTERLINE • Cold Weld • Flat Spots / Penetrators • Pinholes • Porosity • Cracking .
Misalignment Notch: Stress Riser .
Poor Scarfing Notch Thin Section .
Die Burns Arcing Crack Martensite .
Turned Up Fibers .Hook Cracks .
Hook Cracks .
Hardness Loss .
Cold Weld Cold Weld .
Flat Spots & Penetrators in Flash Welds .
Factors During Upset Which Reduce Defects • Upset Velocity • Upset Current • Upset Force • Upset Distance • Material Hot Strength/Chemistry .
Oxides Tend to Solidify or Harden and Get entrapped at the Interface 3.Upset Velocity Higher Velocity Helps extrude Centerline Oxides Out 1. Oxides Are Present Because Melting Points are high 2. Rapid Velocity Helps Get Them Moving .
Upset Current Advantages • Keeps Heat at Center Line During Upset • Keeps Oxides Fluid • Aids In Forcing Oxides Out Disadvantages • Excess Heating Can Produce Excess Upset • More HAZ Fiber Turn Up .
Upset Force Generally Use Maximum Available (Too Light a Force May Entrap Oxides) Upset Distance Need Enough Upset to Squeeze all Oxides Out (Rule of Thumb: 1/2 to 1.25 times the thickness) .
Material Hot Strength/Chemistry • Materials with higher hot strength require higher force during upset • Materials producing refractory oxides or nitrides require higher upset distance to squeeze them out .
“Electro-hydraulic Control of Flash Welding.Feedback Control on Platen Motion During Flashing Monitor pre-programmed motion Platen Travel Acceptable PreProgrammed Range TIME Flashing Current Also Monitored. Feb 1975 .” Svetsaren. In Case of Short Circuit Motion is Reversed Torstensson..
Feedback Control on Platen Motion During Flashing Voltage Current Current Observation Action High Low Wide gap Speed up Low Voltage High Gap too small Slow down Measure Voltage and Current Very low Very high Short circuit Reverse Medar Technical Literature. “Medar Flashweld Control with Programmable Adaptive Cam” .
Welding Design & Fab. May 1979 .Monitored During Flashing Upset Current Until Proportional Amount of Power Attained Dickinson “Adapting HSLA Steel to Welded Wheel Rims”.
Flash Welding .
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