1

Career Planning for
Prospective Faculty
AIChE Annual Meeting
November 12, 2006
Geoffrey Prentice
gprentic@ nsf.gov
www.nsf.gov
703-292-8371
Tim Anderson
tim @ ufl.edu
University of Florida
352-392-0946


2
Workshop Agenda
• Welcome and Introductions
• New Faculty Success Strategies
• New Faculty Career Planning
• Writing Proposals
• Research Career Planning
• Applying to the NSF
• The CAREER Award


3
• Managing Research
• NSF Engineering Overview
• Identifying Research Problems
• Developing Research Proposals
• Time Management
• Contacting Funding Agencies
• Evaluation & Closing Remarks

Workshop Agenda


4
Comments
4 Presentation will highlight key
points
4 Many slides will be hidden –
mostly informational
Full presentation online at:
www.nsf.gov/eng/cbet/presentations/
4 Designed to be an active
workshop – please ask
questions / add experience


5
New Faculty
Success Strategies


6
4 Very little study of new
engineering faculty development
4 Can be stressful

4 What is the most stressful aspect
of being a new faculty member?
What Do We Know About
New Faculty Development?


7
4 Write on this page what you
find most stressful about being
or making the transition to a
faculty member
4 Break into groups of 4-6,
introduce yourselves, and share
this information
Exercise


8
4 Stress Points (Sorcinelli, 1992)
4 Not enough time
4 Inadequate feedback and recognition
4 Unrealistic self-expectations
4 Lack of collegiality
4 Balancing work and outside life
What Do We Know About
New Faculty Development?


9
Faculty Characteristics
(Boice 1991, not limited to engineering faculty, extremes)
Quick Starters
4 Seek social
support / advice
4 Exemplary teachers
4 positive attitude
towards students
4 less time
preparing for class
4 more time
on scholarly work
4 complain less
Unsuccessful
4 Confused about
expectations
4 Feel socially isolated
4 Scholarly work only
verbal priority, low
actual time
4 Defensive teachers
4 lecture only
4 content focus
4 avoid bad
evaluations


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4 Schedule regular time for scholarly
writing (proposals, papers, reports);
keep time log
4 30-45 minutes daily or 2-3 longer
blocks weekly
4 Keep record of time spent on all activities
4 Limit preparation time for class
(especially after the first offering)
4 < 2 hours preparation for 1 hour of
lecture
4 Keep track of time spent in time log
Slide 1 of 2
Success Strategies


11
4 Network at least 2 hours / week
4 Visit offices, go to lunch, have a cup of coffee
with colleagues in and out of the department
4 Discuss research, teaching, campus culture
4 Develop clear goals and
a plan to reach them
4 Get feedback on plans from department head, mentor,
other colleagues, and make adjustments
4 Use planning tool (e.g. Gantt chart to plan course
development, research, presentations, publications)
4 Periodically review progress (at least annually)
Slide 2 of 2
Success Strategies


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Faculty Time Scales
4 Next lecture 2 days
4 Proposal written 4 weeks
4 Course 4 months
4 Publication submitted-published 6 months
4 Annual evaluation 1 year
4 Mid-career review 3 years
4 PhD graduates 4 years
4 Tenure package due 5 years


13
New Faculty
Career Planning


14
4 Research Career
4 Teaching Career
4 Professional Career
4 Personal Career
Career Elements Are Connected
Components
of Career Planning


15
4 Mission - What you have a
passion for
4 Goal - What you would like to
accomplish
4 Objective - What you will accomplish
by specific Activities
Developing a Plan:
Mission / Goals /
Objectives / Activities


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Missions
What you have a
passion for . . .
4 What are your
strengths?
4 What do you like
learning?
4 What outcome would
you like to see?
4 Who do you admire?
May change with time
Goals
What you would hope
to accomplish . . .
4 You decide vs.
others decide
4 Routine vs.
non-routine
4 Idealistic vs.
realistic
4 Growth goals


17
Some Example
Career Development Goals (priority)
Research Goals
4 Obtain tenure (high)
4 Establish recognized
research program in
wide-band gap materials
(medium)
Professional Goals
4 Become a valued member
of the AACG (high)
4 Improve my writing skills
(medium)
Teaching Goals
4 Introduce molecular concepts
into curriculum (medium)
4 Explore best use of course
management tools (medium)
Personal Goals
4 Learn to play tennis
(medium)
4 Become fluent in French
(low)


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What you will accomplish
by specific Activities ?
4 List only feasible activities
4 Be specific
4 Include activities currently doing
4 State time frame –
can separate (week, term, year)
4 Prioritize list – cannot do all
Objectives and Activities:
The Plan to Achieve Your Goals


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Mission: Contribute to realizing broader use
of solar energy
Goal (6 yr): Obtain tenure
Sub goals: Established funded research
program in photovoltaics
Objectives: Submit a CAREER proposal
this semester
Activities:
4 Write literature review by March 15
4 Have student complete preliminary experiment by April 15
4 Draft white paper of proposed REU concept by April 1
4 Call NSF program manager on Monday to discuss
questions
Example


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4 Break into the same groups, write
your mission in one of the 4 areas
(research, teaching, professional,
personal), and then write a goal you
may want to pursue during the next
5 years in support of that mission.
4 Share this with the other members
of the group

4 Revisit in a few days, complete and
add mission / goals for other areas
Mission / Goal
Development Exercise


21
4 Establish realistic balance; eliminate
goals if necessary
4 Implement in context of your situation
(institution, family, health, finances…)
4 Revisit periodically – goals change
4 Obtain feedback and tune (chair,
colleague,
mentor)
4 Keep it visible (e.g., white board,
Gannt chart)
Implementation


22
Writing the Proposal


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4 Stress the novel aspects of your approach
4 Differentiate your work from that done by
others
4 Emphasize the hypothesis that your research
will test
4 Respond to all aspects of the program
description
4 Support your ideas with references /
preliminary results
4 Describe applications that could result
from the research
4 Show where the research might lead
4 Include figures and graphs to facilitate
understanding – teach not snow
Successful Proposals


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I. Project Summary
II. Project Description
A. Results from prior agency support
B. Statement of problem and significance
C. Introduction and background
4 Relevant literature review
4 Preliminary data
4 Conceptual or empirical model
4 Justification of approach or novel
methods
Common Sections
Slide 1 of 2


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D. Research plan

4 Overview of research design
4 Objectives, hypotheses, and methods
4 Analysis and expected results
4 Timetable
E. References cited
F. Budgets
G. Current and pending support
H. Description of Facilities
Common Sections
Slide 2 of 2


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4 Typographical errors
4 Erroneous references
4 Exceed page length guidelines
4 Small font
4 Overly dramatic
Don’t Annoy Reviewers


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4 Ask what scientists inside vs. outside field
would perceive as greatest contribution
4 Consider both empirical and theoretical
contributions
4 Identify and contrast basic and applied uses
of results
4 Ask how you expect others to use your results
4 Compare contributions that are likely to be
important 1 year vs. 10 years after completion
Significance Statement
(Overall Objectives, Overview and Significance, Significance
and Project Objectives, Statement of the Problem)
Slide 1 of 2


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4 Be your own best critic:
How would you dispute claims ?
4 Feature significance statement at beginning
4 Keep it short
4 Funnel the reader:
broadest goals to specific aims
4 Explain the value of the work
4 Link with other fields
4 Don’t go overboard
Significance Statement
Slide 2 of 2


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4 Present in clear, concise,
meaningful manner
4 Avoid jargon and overstatement
4 Be careful with buzzwords
(some folks are annoyed)
4 Avoid cute and too informal titles
Proposal Title


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4 Most important section (initial impressions,
often used for reviewer selection)
4 Contains goals and scope of study,
significance, brief description of methods,
hypotheses and expected results
4 Clear, concise, accurate, exciting
4 Particularly important with panel reviews
4 Usually 1-2 pages
4 Conventions vary by field – seek samples
Executive or
Project Summary


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4 Scientifically far-reaching aspects vs.
specific outcomes
4 Hypotheses: Specific set of testable conjectures
Goal: “to further our understanding of
the implication of global climate
change on wetlands”
Objective: “to measure the diffusivity of
methanol in water as a function
of temperature and composition”
Hypothesis: “Zinc can effectively compete with
other metals for enzyme-active
sites, transporter proteins, and
other biologically important ligands.”
Goals, Objectives, Hypotheses


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4 Focus on important points and
establish relevance
4 Discuss motivation for the project
4 Not too long
4 Use schematics, models, headings, and
formatting to channel the reader to show
the direction that proposal is going
4 Relevant literature review
4 Preliminary results
4 Results from prior agency support
4 Judging productivity
4 Keep concise
Introduction and Background


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4 Overview of research plan and
justification
4 Methods and materials
4 Sampling procedures
4 Experiment description
4 Technical procedures
4 Algorithm descriptions
4 Data analysis
Research Plan
Slide 1 of 2


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1. Objective 1
4 Hypothesis 1A
4 methods, materials, and protocol
4 data analysis
4 Hypothesis 1A
4 methods, materials, and protocol
4 data analysis
2. Objective 2
4 etc.
Research Plan
Slide 2 of 2


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4 Be unbiased – cite disputed work
4 Cite peer reviewed work, minimize unreviewed
4 Cite your own work but not excessively
4 Cite recent work
4 Cite only work you have read – don’t cut & paste
4 Reviewers will look for their references
4 Include a sufficient number of references
to establish credibility and feasibility
4 Ensure accuracy of citations
4 Place correctly and concisely
References


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4 When your are writing, WRITE!
4 Ask a colleague to review your proposal
4 Respected researchers in your field will
read your proposal – make a good
impression
4 Get help with ‘boiler plate’ and parallel
process
4 Respect intellectual property, give
appropriate credit
4 Don’t promise too much
Tips
Slide 1 of 2


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4 Contact program monitors
4 Meet at professional societies
4 Volunteer to serve as reviewer
4 Submit early
4 ~ 1% NSF proposals returned
4 Federal fiscal year begins October
1
Tips
Slide 2 of 2


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“Nothing in the world can take the place
of persistence.
“Talent will not: nothing is more common
than unsuccessful men with talent.
“Genius will not: unrewarded genius is
almost a proverb.
“Education alone will not: the world is full
of educated derelicts.
“Persistence and determination alone are
omnipotent.”
“Press On”: Persistence . . .


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National Science Foundation
www.nsf.gov/pubs/
Environmental Protection Agency
www.epa.gov/seahome/grants/src/intro.htm/
The Foundation Center
www.fdncenter.org/onlib/shortcourse/prop1.html
University of Pennsylvania
www.the-scientist.library.upenn.edu/
yr1997/prof_070428.html/

“A Winning Strategy for Grant Applications”
On-Line Proposal Writing Guides


40
Style Guide
http://www.colorado.edu/Publications/styleguide/symbols.html
On-Line Proposal Writing Guides


41
Note: This workshop will focus on
establishing and developing a research
career, but encourage you to attend
other workshops on teaching (e.g., NETI)
and professional development.
Research Career Planning


42
The Transition
from Graduate Student
to Faculty Status
Research
From
Conducting ¬
Directing
(More open-ended)
From
Solving Problem ¬
Defining Problem /
Seeking Funding
(80% First Proposals Rejected)
Teaching
From
Student ¬ Teacher
(More structured)
From
Reader ¬ Editor
(Student Learning
Improves
in Next Offering)


43
4 Work with young, bright and eager
students
4 Perform research on topics of my choice
(to a degree)
4 Sabbatical every 7
th
year
4 Travel
4 Enjoy colleagues in own and other
disciplines, around the world
4 Retire gracefully
4 And have great job security (tenure)
And I Get Paid to Do This!


44
4 Develop 5-year and long term plans
and revise (at least annually)
4 Peer recognized excellence (‘potential’
required for tenure at most institutions)
in research area is long term goal
4 Important to remain research active
throughout career (traditional graduate
program, REU’s, collaborate with
industry, sabbaticals, education
research . . . )
Research Career


45
4 Addresses significant research question(s);
breaks new ground / innovative
4 Uses appropriate and best methods;
can be replicated
4 Includes appropriate analysis and applies
results
4 Results are synthesized and
disseminated in a timely and
peer reviewed manner
Cornerstones
of Good Research


46
4 Most researchers only work in a few
research areas during their career (~1 to 5)
4 Identify engineering science(s) (base)
and technology (driver)
4 Criteria for selection: Interesting,
importance of problem, match to your
skills, long-term funding prospects,
available resources, presence of
colleagues, fit with department vision,
student interests, local interests
Research Areas


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Research Discipline
Research Field
Research Area
Research Issues
Problem Solution
4 CVD of
semiconductors
4 Bulk crystal growth
4 Solid-state sensors
Likely fixed
(sometimes
different than
Ph.D. topic)
Distinguishes
Innovative
Only a few in
one’s career
Established
4 Chemical
Engineering
4 Electronic Materials
Processing
4 p-type doping
of GaN
4 Cluster doping
Research Hierarchies


48
4 Graduate students: 5 yr. before first PhD
& continuity, 1 PhD/yr = group size 6-7,
40 yr career = 35 PhDs in career
4 35 solutions; ~20 problems; few
research areas in career
4 Grad. student cost: $20K (stipend)+10K
(overhead)+5K (tuition) = $35K/yr
4 $245K (7 students) + 40K (3 summer mo)
= $285K + cost of research
(~25K/student) = $460,000/yr funding
The Numbers ($)
Slide 1 of 3


49
4 The department investment:
Chair’s view
4 Salary: $70K/yr for 6 yr = $420K
4 Start-up (variable): students, summer
salary, equipment, supplies, reduced
teaching service assignment,
. . . = $400K
4 Total = $820K
The Numbers ($)
Slide 2 of 3


50
4 Idea to publication: 3 to 7 years
4 t = 0 (idea) + 3 mo (preliminary results)
+ 2 mo (write proposal)
+ 3-6 mo (review)
+ 1-13 mo (funding cycle - note 10/1)
+ 0-12 mo (identify graduate student)
+ 12-36 mo (do research)
+ 3 mo (write manuscript)
+ 6-15 mo (submit / review / publish)
= 30-90 months
The Numbers (time)
Slide 3 of 3


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4 Extension of thesis
or post-doctoral research
4 Easiest but competing with former advisor(s)
4 Tangent to thesis
or post-doctoral research
4 Easy transition but credibility not fully
established
4 New area
4 Longer time constant & higher risk, but
return may be high; consider collaboration
(your contribution must be recognizable)
Identifying Research Area
and Issues in your Field


52
Misconceptions
About Education Research
‘Education research is not real research’
4 Few engineers are exposed to ‘real education
research’, but it is a sophisticated combination
of cognitive & behavioral sciences, design and
analysis of experiments w/human element, . . .
‘There is no funding for education research’
4 Workforce development $ growing rapidly
4 Success rate often higher than for discipline
research
‘Education research will hurt my career’
4 Recipients of education scholarship awards are
often discipline leaders of research


53
Advice on Education Research
and Scholarship
4 Insist on the same standards of
excellence as for discipline research
4 Include following in proposals (CAREER also)
4 Literature review
4 Assessment and evaluation plan
4 Dissemination plan
4 Leverage resources (partners, plug-ins, pyramid)
4 Plus usual elements w/ emphasis on hypothesis testing
4 Focus
4 Collaborate with experts in other fields


54
Advice on Education Research
and Scholarship
4 Decide your level of activity, but do some
4 Within context of assigned activities to
integrated with discipline research to pure
education research project to sole research
Ensure chair is aware of your plans
4 Often post-tenure activity
4 Focus on an area you enjoy
4 Learning with technology, text writing,
experiential learning, multidisciplinary design,
K-12 outreach, . . .


55
Balance your life:
“Publish and Cherish”
Professional Life:
Teaching / Research:
4 Proposals
4 Students
4 Advising
4 Papers
4 Conferences, etc.
. . . Open Ended . . .
Personal Life:
4 Relationships
4 Hobbies
4 Physical activity
4 Family
4 Religion
4 Schools, politics, . .
. . . . Open ended . . .
¬ ¬ ¬ Make Balanced Time Investments


56
4
40 years as a faculty
4
~20 research problems
4
35 PhD students
4
140 publications
4
$15 million in funding
4
300 proposals
4
70 courses taught
4
>2000 students
4
6 chairs, 7 deans and 8 presidents
4
4 sabbaticals
4
2080 Saturdays
Your Academic Career


57
4 The basis (drivers/gaps) for your
research area will not exist in 15 years
4 The tools you use will become routine
4 Your peers will for the most part still be
active in research
4
The fundamental engineering sciences
will remain valid
Plan for the Long term


58
4 Invest in new research directions
4 Take sabbaticals
4 Collaborative research
4 Use ‘investment resources’ wisely
4 Pursue growth activities
Plan for the Long term


59
Applying for
NSF Grants


60
Award Criteria
4 Intellectual merit
4 Importance in advancing understanding
in a field
4 Creativity and novelty of approach
4 Qualifications of investigators
4 Completeness of research plan
4 Access to resources
4 Broader impacts
4 Promotion of teaching and training
4 Inclusion of underrepresented minorities
4 Enhancement of infrastructure &
partnerships
4 Dissemination of results
4 Benefits to society


61
Finding an Appropriate Program
4 Check list of currently funded programs
4 Use FastLane
4 Read titles and abstracts on the website
4 Find a fit
4 Contact program director
4 Prepare a one-page abstract
4 Specify appropriate program on cover sheet
4 Consider initiatives and special programs
4 Sensors initiative
4 NSE initiative


62
Award List for Program:
SEPARATIONS and PURIFICATION PROCESSES
[ Click on the Award Number for Additional Information (on Web) ]
O Multicomponent Space-Charge Ion Uptake and Ion / Solvent
Transport Models for Ion-Exchange Membranes
Award#: 0331389 Current Year Award Amount: $0 Cumulative Award Amt: $166,310
Estimated Total Award Amount: $166,310
Original Start Date: Sep 01, 2002 Projected Duration: 12 Months
PI: Pintauro Institution: Case Western Reserve State: Ohio District: 00
O New Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes
Award#: 0327089 Current Year Award Amt: $90,366 Cumulative Award Amt: $90,366
Estimated Total Award Amount: $277,155
Original Start Date: Aug 01, 2003 Projected Duration: 36 Months
PI: Wankat Institution: Purdue University State: Indiana District: 07
O SGER: Distillation Using Hollow Fibers as Structured Packing
Award#: 0322882 Current Year Award Amt: $49,937 Cumulative Award Amt: $49,937
Estimated Total Award Amount: $49,937
Original Start Date: Jun 01, 2003 Projected Duration: 12 Months
PI: Cussler Institution: Univ of Minnesota-Twin Cities State: Minnesota District: 05


63


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Award Statistics
4 Distribution by experience
4 Approximately 30% new
investigators
4 70% recently funded by NSF
4 Success rates
4 Unsolicited proposals about 15%
4 CAREER about 15%
4 Initiatives about 10% (varies widely)


65
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01
FISCAL YEAR
No. Employees/
Budget ($M)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Number of Proposals
(K)
NSF BUDGET FTEs + IPAs COMPETITIVE PROPOSALS
Comparison of NSF Budget, Staff and
Comparison of NSF Budget, Staff and
Competitive Proposal Submissions over Time
Competitive Proposal Submissions over Time


66
Distribution of Average Reviewer Ratings
FY 2005
Number of Proposals: 41,758 ( 31,966 Declines & 9,792 Awards )


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Final Thoughts
4 Contact program directors
4 Meet at professional society conferences
4 Volunteer to review proposals
for CBET: www.nsf.gov/eng/cbet/reviewer/
4 Examine successful proposals
4 Ask colleagues for their proposals
4 Get proposal reviews from colleagues
4 Suggest reviewers for your proposal
4 Use FastLane form provided


68
NSF Announcement #05-579 FY 2006–2008
Faculty Early Career
Development Program
(CAREER)


69
CAREER: Program Goals
4 NSF's awards for new faculty members
4 The size and duration of CAREER awards
are commensurate with PI’s needs
4 Awardees are selected on the basis of
their plans to develop highly integrative
and effective research and education
careers
4 Increased participation of those
traditionally under-represented in
science and engineering encouraged


70
CAREER: Eligibility
Applicants Must:
4 Hold a doctoral degree as of submission date
4 Be untenured as of submission date
4 Be employed in a tenure-track (or
equivalent) position as of October 1 following submission
4 Be employed as an assistant professor
(or equivalent) as of October 1 following submission
4 Have not competed more than two times
previously in the CAREER program
4 Have not previously received an NSF
CAREER or PECASE award


71
CAREER: Self-Certification
4 At time of submission, applicants will
self-certify for both CAREER and PECASE
eligibility. Unless applicants properly
complete the checklist, they will not
be able to submit their proposal.

4 CAREER certification will appear after
the cover page and will be sent to
reviewers as part of the proposal.

4 PECASE certification will appear on the
Form 1225 (Information about the PI)
and will not be sent to reviewers.


72
CAREER Proposals
4 Critical Elements
4 Research and education
4 Departure from Ph.D. work
4 Special Considerations
4 Panel review - - bring reviewers up to speed
4 Read current announcement: rules change
4 PI specifies program for initial assignment
4 Logistics
4 Submit early and resubmit if necessary
4 Follow-up: check for successful submission
4 Check converted version of proposal
4 About 1% of proposals returned un-reviewed


73
CAREER: Departmental Letter
4 Departmental Letter Must:
4 Include standard three-sentence
endorsement
4 Describe the departmental/institutional
support
4 Verify the self-certified PI eligibility
information
4 REMINDER: Annual reports should include a
letter from the department chair restating
his/her endorsement and support of the
CAREER PI


74
CAREER: Proposal Review
4 Evaluated using NSF’s two merit review
criteria:

4 What is the intellectual merit of the
proposed activity?

4 What are the broader impacts of the
proposed activity?
4 Reviewers are also asked to consider the
capability of the applicant to make an
integrative contribution to both education
and research and to integrate diversity in
all program activities.


75
CAREER:
Award Duration and Size
4 5-year duration

4 Minimum award size of $400,000

4 BIO minimum award size of
$500,000 for FY03

4 No maximum award size


76
CAREER Deadlines
July 17, 2007 BIO, CISE, EHR
July 18, 2007 ENG
July 19, 2007 GEO, MPS, OPP, SBE


77
PECASE
Presidential Early Career Awards for
Scientists and Engineers
Recognizes outstanding scientists and
engineers who, early in their careers,
show exceptional potential for
leadership at the frontiers of knowledge
Highest honor bestowed by the U.S.
government on scientists and engineers
at the beginning of their careers


78
CAREER & PECASE
4 As in previous years, NSF will have twenty
PECASE “slots”

4 Number of slots per directorate will be
determined by number of proposals received
in each directorate

4 Each directorate will nominate their
most meritorious CAREER PI(s) for PECASE

4 PECASE awardees will be announced in
the fall following receipt of the CAREER award
(i.e., approximately 15-18 months
after CAREER proposal submission)


79
PECASE: Eligibility
4 NSF nominates the 20 most meritorious
CAREER awardees for PECASE

4 NSF Applicants Must:

4 Meet all of the CAREER eligibility
requirements

4 Be U.S. citizens, nationals, or permanent
residents who hold such status on or
before their Directorate's July deadline
for submission of CAREER proposals

4 An individual can receive only one
PECASE award


80
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
ENG BIO CISE GEO MPS
Unfunded Proposals
Awards
14% 10% 22%
21%
National Science Foundation + Directorate for Engineering
CAREER Program Awards by Directorate
FY 2006
T
o
t
a
l

P
r
o
p
o
s
a
l
s
Awards
Declines
106
747
38
368
119
545
21
101

19%
112
577


81


82
CAREER: Useful Websites
4 Examples of the “broader impacts criterion”:
http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2002/nsf022/bicexamples.pdf

4 CAREER Homepage:

http://www.nsf.gov/career

4 Program Solicitation

4 Submission Checklist

4 Awards lists and abstracts

4 FAQ (05-027)


83
Handout
Sample Comments
from
Career Reviews


84
Other New Faculty
Proposal Opportunities
4 Beckman Young Investigators Permanent
Resident Alien / Tenure-Track / U.S. Citizen Award
$264K over 3 years / Deadline December 1
http://www.beckman-foundation.com/byiguide2.html
4 Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation
New Faculty Award $50,000 before new
faculty members begins their first tenure-track
appointment, for U.S institutions with PhD granted
in chemistry, biochemistry, or chemical enginerring
http://www.dreyfus.org/nf.shtml
4 Microsoft Research New Faculty
Fellowship Program ‘advancing computing
research in novel directions’ / $200K / due
typically in October
http://research.microsoft.com/ur/us/nff/


85
Managing Research
Now that you have funding!


86
Outline
4 Student Project Definition
4 Group / Individual Meetings
4 Faculty Role
4 Student Evaluation and Feedback
4 Placement and Professional
Development


87
Outline
4 Other personnel (e.g., post docs,
technicians, undergraduates)
4 Qualifying Exam, Thesis Writing,
Defense, Teaching Assistant
4 Group Continuity, Team Work,
Lab Safety
4 $ and Interfacing with Agency


88
Guiding Observations
4 Every student is different
4 There is not a single correct
management style
4 When in doubt ask: What is best
for the student?


89
Reasons Grad Students Fail
4 Project too difficult or unmanageable
4 Student lost interest in topic
4 Student isolation
4 Poor planning and project management
4 Writing the dissertation
4 Few problems if turn in parts
while still doing research
4 Personal problems: Money is #1
4 Inadequate or no supervision
(22% of Graduate Students in survey)


90
Student Project Definition
A Four-Step Process
Step One: Select Student
4 Keep a sharp eye in the classroom
4 Participate in the recruiting and
application review process
4 Impress on the student that this is the
most important decision they will make
in graduate school!


91
Student Project Definition
A Four-Step Process
Step Two: Involve the student in defining
the project. It is a periodic process.
4 Teach student how to define research
problem
4 Scientific method
4 Synthesis of literature
4 Grant/contract requirements must be met
4 Funded project likely more successful
(peer reviewed, long term support)


92
Student Project Definition
A Four-Step Process
Step Three: Incorporate early milestones
4 e.g., specific classes to take, a report,
first paper or presentation, a piece of
equipment designed, literature review,
hypotheses / broad objectives, etc.
4 Establish a 2-way “probationary”
period
4 Establish a timeline for project
4 Require regular progress reports


93
Student Project Definition
A Four-Step Process
Step Four: Establish the research
committee
4 Help the student choose the committee,
impressing on them the purpose of a
research committee
4 Have the student present her/his
hypotheses (depending upon department
rules), objectives, and any initial results
to her/his committee within the first year.


94
Student Project Definition
4 Value independent thinking
4 Include open-ended component(s)
4 Have them involved in document definition
(e.g., thesis outline, submit fellowship application – often requires
career plan
4 For every problem they encounter in the lab, I
encourage them to FIRST think of at least 3 ways
to solve that problem before they come to me for
“answers.”
4 Encourage project “ownership”
4 Have student be responsible for keeping supplies
needed for her/his project in stock
4 Define role in group
4 Often a friction point
4 Important to not only show how their work overlaps
with other students but also to give each student a
task (e.g., SOPs, lab orders, waste declaration)


95
Group Meetings
4 Periodic group meetings are
helpful
4 Presentations, guests, lectures,
paper reviews, book chapters,
special events
4 Meet with other groups occasionally
4 Keep it technical
4 Social events
4 Holiday party, picnic


96
Individual Meetings
4 Establish mechanism
for regular meetings
4 Every student is different
4 Identify strengths, weaknesses
4 Academic children
4 Clearly convey your expectations


97
Identify something
your advisor did
that was effective
in managing the group.


98
Faculty Role
4 You are the research advisor
not fellow student
4 Maintain professional relationship
4 Thesis is authored by 1 person
4 You are role model, academic counselor,
consultant, sounding board, evaluator,
supporter, editor, agent
4 Establish traditions / build pride
4 Hardbound dissertation, dinner, pedigree
chart, . . .
4 Maintain contact


99
Ideal Advisor
4 Advisor active in research
4 Has regular meetings with Grad Students
4 Creates a research climate that
encourages Graduate Students
to have independent ideas
4 Expects quality
4 Model for ethical behavior
4 Want graduates to almost think
they did research & thesis by themselves


100
Graduate Student Evolution
4 GS like warm, structured advisors
4 1
st
year Grad Students want to develop
a personal relationship with advisor
4 2
nd
& 3
rd
year Grad Studetns want
expertise and availability
4 Grad Students want advisor to adjust
to their growing maturity
4 In US, laissez-faire often interpreted
as neglect - - particularly by
international Grad Students


101
Research Advisor Attitude
4 Advising is a form of teaching.
4 Advisors need to remember that student’s
growth is more important than research.
Do what is best for the student at all times.
Kant's imperative: Act so that you treat human beings
always as ends and never only as means. Graduate
students deserve dignity and respect.
4 The best thing for the Grad Student
may not be what the Grad Student wants.
4 Thus, there may be periods when the
Grad Student is unhappy.
4 Advisors can discuss reasons for their
behavior.


102
Professors as Advisors
4 A few are effective with all students,
most are effective with some, and
a few are incapable of advising anyone.
4 Some professors have problems
over and over.
4 Some professors are better with
undergraduate and Masters students,
and others are better with PhD students.
4 Professors improve with experience.
4 Departments: Track performance
of PhD candidates


103
Student Evaluation and Feedback
Slide 1 of 2
4 Develop an evaluation process
+ Examples: Formal process (e.g., your University may
have a process), biweekly meetings, group meetings
4 Build in methods to detect problems early
+ Sample writing, timelines, independence,
professionalism, …
4 It is never inappropriate to send words of
“thank you,” “job well done,” and “good luck” or
to likewise let them know that you are expecting
better things from them!
4 Students are usually better than you think!!!
+ Don’t be afraid to challenge them!!!


104
Student Evaluation and Feedback
Slide 2 of 2
4 Utilize peer group
+ Feedback on presentations, research plan,
writing
4 Return material in a timely manner

4 Seek advice
+ Counselors, other faculty, international
office, …


105
Placement and
Professional Development
Slide 1 of 4
Help students determine career goals
4 Academics: Research, Service, and
Teaching

+ Expose them to your world
in a positive way!
+ Examples: meaningful TA, involve in
writing proposals, direct undergraduates,
have them attend key technical meetings
(have them prepare business cards)


106
Placement and
Professional Development
Slide 2 of 4
Help students determine career goals
4 Off-campus experience
+ Take them on visits to industrial,
consulting, and governmental facilities,
host visitors from these facilities,
choose someone who works in one of
these locations as an external
committee member, etc.
4 Discuss pros and cons
of each career choice


107
Placement and
Professional Development
Slide 3 of 4
Help students prepare for placement
4 You have an obligation to assist student
in obtaining a suitable position
+ Put in the “leg work” for your student
º Network, letter, promote, attend right conference
+ Maintain contact lists (industry friends, former students)
+ Expose them to the profession - Include students in
conference/session planning, encourage them to volunteer for their
professional societies, participate in short courses, and other
activities that may promote their interaction with professionals
+ Host Visitors


108
Placement and
Professional Development
Slide 4 of 4
Help students prepare for placement
4 Assist in presentation development,
review resume and supporting documents
+ Typical questions, talk with other
students, observe faculty candidates,
sample resumes


109
Other Personnel
4 Undergraduates
+ Realizing good productivity by UG’s
challenging
¤ Let graduate students advise Ugs

¤ Well defined/scoped project required
4 Post-doctoral researchers
+ More productive, less guidance, assist
in directing graduate students
+ Select carefully

+ Remember their objective is to find next job
+ Cost issue


110
Other Personnel
4 Technicians
+ They provide continuity / institutional
memory
+ Involve in education as well
+ Remember this is their career
4 Staff can be very helpful –
treat with respect


111
Managing Students
Slide 1 of 3
4 Qualifying exam (understand
your department’s process)
+ Complete early (key indicator of
potential)
+ Allow appropriate time for
preparation
+ Provide good samples
+ Use opportunity to require corrective
measures (e.g., additional
coursework, language course)


112
Managing Students
Slide 2 of 3
4 Thesis writing
+ Students always underestimate time
+ Encourage continuous writing
+ Develop “living” outline early
+ Do not let student leave before finished!
4 Defense
+ Practice with research group
+ Involve student with committee selection
+ Demonstrate breadth and depth
¤ Cannot present entire thesis


113
Managing Students
Slide 3 of 3
4 Teaching Assistants
+ T.A. with faculty other than advisor
¤ Better learning experience plus
they get to know other faculty
+ Emphasize teaching not grading
¤ Provide feedback on teaching
effectiveness
+ Include a creative aspect to
teaching experience


114
Continuity Slide 1 of 3
4 Overlap students
+ Have each student be responsible for
training her / his successor
+ Use a checklist of basic lab techniques
they must first master
4 Technicians, research faculty useful


115
Continuity Slide 2 of 3
4 Make certain that the laboratory
has teaching resources
+ Develop a notebook of SOPs. Have
students write these.
+ Keep copy of all equipment manuals
locked up but available
+ Have good methods books on hand



116
Continuity Slide 3 of 3
4 Document programs, thesis
is good repository
4 Use lab books (good for IP too)
4 Maintain contact with students after
graduation


117
Budget Management
4 Check expenditures routinely (monthly)
+ But don’t spend too much time. Let system
work for you!
+ Early on, have the administrative staff in
your department and College explain their
roles in the budget process
4 ‘Bank’ fund – overhead account/Foundation
4 If trouble predicted, tell folks
4 Use educational institution discounts
+ ‘training future customers’ rationale


118
When/What to Disclose
• WHAT: Disclose novel ideas,
discoveries, inventions that are timely
and useful to the marketplace
• WHEN: Disclose with sufficient notice
before any publication (prior to
submission) or enabling public
disclosure
• Don’t know if you should disclose?
Call
Call
local office of licensing/technology
local office of licensing/technology


119
University Owns Employee
Inventions When:
• The invention was made while you
were employed at university
AND
• The invention is in the field/discipline
in which you are/were employed
OR
• The invention was made with
university resources


120
Types of Intellectual Property
• Patents
–Enable you to exclude others from using
your ideas for a limited period of time
• Copyrights
–Grant you the right to exclude others
from reproducing your work without
permission
• Know-how
–Expertise required to reproduce a
patent, licensed in conjunction with the
patent


121
NSF
Engineering
Directorate
Overview


122


123
NSF Budget
FY 2001-2007
$0
$1,000
$2,000
$3,000
$4,000
$5,000
$6,000
$7,000
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Current
Plan
2007
Request
D
o
l
l
a
r
s

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s


124


125
Emerging Frontiers in
Research and Innovation
(EFRI)
Chemical,
Bioengineering,
Environmental,
And Transport
Systems
(CBET)
Civil,
Mechanical, and
Manufacturing
Innovation
(CMMI)
Electrical,
Communications
and Cyber
Systems
(ECCS)
Engineering
Education and
Centers
(EEC)
Industrial
Innovation and
Partnerships
(IIP)
Directorate for Engineering
FY 2007
Office of the Assistant Director
Deputy Assistant Director
(OAD)
Senior Advisor
Nanotechnology


126
CBET Organization Chart
Chemical,
Biochemical, and
Biotechnology
Systems
Biomedical
Engineering and
Engineering
Healthcare
Transport and
Thermal Fluids
Process and
Reaction Engineering
Maria Burka
Catalysis and
Biocatalysis
John Regalbuto
Biochemical
Engineering
Bruce Hamilton
Environmental
Engineering and
Sustainability
Biotechnology
Fred Heineken
Chemical and
Biological Separations
Geoff Prentice
Thermal
Transport Processes
Pat Phelan
Interfacial Processes
And Thermodynamics
Bob Wellek
Particulate and
Multiphase Processes
Vacant
Fluid Dynamics
Bill Schultz
Combustion, Fire, and
Plasma Systems
Phil Westmoreland
Research to Aid Persons
With Disabilities
Bob Jaeger
Biomedical
Engineering
Semahat Demir
Biophotonics
Leon Esterowitz
Environmental
Engineering
Pat Brezonik
Environmental
Technology
Cindy Ekstein
Energy for
Sustainability
Vacant
Environmental
Sustainability
Cindy Lee
Division Director
Judy Raper
Deputy Division Director
Bob Wellek
Senior Advisor
Marshall Lih


127
ENG and NSF Funding Rates
Research Grants
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Estimate
2007
Request
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
ENG Proposals ENG Awards ENG Funding Rate NSF Funding Rate


128
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
2003 2004 2005 2006
Competitive Declines
Competitive Awards
25% 24%
13%
16%
National Science Foundation + Directorate for Engineering
CTS Funding Rate for Competitive Awards
T
o
t
a
l

P
r
o
p
o
s
a
l

A
w
a
r
d
s

&

D
e
c
l
i
n
e
s
Declines
Awards
687
234
747
232
1287
193
1313
249



129
ENG & SBIR/STTR Budget History
$0.00
$100.00
$200.00
$300.00
$400.00
$500.00
$600.00
$700.00
FY97 FY98 FY99 FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07
ENG SBIR/STTR
D
o
l
l
a
r
s

i
n

M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s


130
ENG NSF-wide Investments
Dollars in Millions


131
Engineering Directorate
Engineering Directorate
Activities
Activities


132
ENG Research Priorities FY07
4 Nanotechnology
4 Energy and Environment
4 Innovation
4 Complexity in Engineered
and Natural Systems
4 Manufacturing Frontiers


133
Emerging Frontiers in
Research and Innovation (EFRI)
4 EFRI focuses support on important
emerging areas in a timely manner

4 Typically, the annual budget for EFRI
will be 3-to-5 percent of the
Directorate budget (~$15-to-$30
million)
4 It is expected that the investment in
any topic will range from $3 million to
the total annual ERFI budget


134
Major Initiatives
with Impact on CBET
in FY 2007
4 NNI
4 $43 million
4 Sensors/Explosives
4 $5 million
4 EFRI (FY07: Auto-reconfigurable
Engineered Systems; Cellular and
Biomolecular Engineering) $25 million
total ENG


135
Identifying
Research Problems


136
Research Problem Solutions
4 Problem/Solution types:
+ Straightforward extension of known
(likely to succeed, but unlikely to
discover much)
+ Substantial in novelty and approach
(higher risk, but chance of greater
return)
+ Wildly innovative, a hunch
(provocative, but difficult to justify)


137
What should you look for?
+ What is my expertise? What is particular
about my expertise that contributes to
the agency’s mission?
+ What is the right agency for my proposal?
+ What is the funding agency funding or
planning to fund?
+ How can I apply my expertise to satisfy the
funding agency’s needs?
+ What does the rfp ask for?
+ Who are the key people to contact?
+ Who are my competitors?


138
Understanding Industry
4 Pick one subfield of industry.
+ e.g., industrial gases
4 Products, processes, economics,
companies & people.
4 Read and clip articles.
+ e.g., Chemical & Engineering News
and annual reports.
4 Talk to industrial people
at meetings. Persist.


139
Advice - Slide 1 of 2
4 Think Big
+ Reflect on problem from its broadest
perspectives
+ Imaginative solutions to
fundamentally important problems
+ If you start small, you will finish even
smaller
4 Invest Discretionary Funds to
Differentiate – equipment dollars
are the most difficult


140
Advice - Slide 2 of 2
4 Avoid Tunnel Vision
+ Plan for long-term, beyond
immediate research area
4 Take Your Time
+ It takes considerable time to design
a research program
4 Envision Outcomes
+ Difference that research can make,
significant papers produced, credited
with solution to important problem


141
Developing a
Research Proposal


142
Developing a Research
Proposal: Overview Slide 1 of 2
4 Identify and describe the conceptual
framework
4 Review relevant literature for problem
and related problems
4 Articulate the general research
question in context of above
4 Formulate set of hypotheses


143
Developing a Research
Proposal: Overview Slide 2 of 2
4 Develop approaches to test hypotheses
and to analyze/synthesize results
4 Evaluate potential alternative outcomes
4 Combine these items in a coherent,
precise, concise, and exciting proposal
4 Submit the proposal
4 Interpret and respond to reviews
of the proposal


144
Pitfalls
Slide 1 of 2
4 Failure to establish significance
of your work
4 Too much text devoted to complex
details or past accomplishments
4 Failure to construct testable hypotheses
4 Constructing too many hypotheses


145
Pitfalls
Slide 2 of 2
4 Too ambitious for time/money
4 Inadequate skills or credentials for
proposed task
4 Poor experimental design
4 Bad analytical or statistical methods


146
Idea
4 An idea begins the proposal development
and writing process, but sometimes a Request
For Proposals (RFP) from a particular agency
can influence or motivate a project.
4 From the original idea in its written form,
scientists, funding agency personnel, and
agency or budgetary guidelines and restrictions
can provide inputs that the writer uses to
revise the proposal.
4 After reconciling all comments and feedback,
the author submits the final document.
Write / Revise
Obtain
Feedback
Pull Together
Done
Funding
Agency
Budget/
Boiler plate
A
C
B
G
H
E
D
F
White paper


147
Know Your
Proposal Reviewers
4 Other academics working same field
(esp. your references, others funded by agency
on similar problems, panel with range of experts)
4 Agency personnel (less expert perhaps,
but with strong eye on agency relevance)
4 Write to YOUR audience
4 Be critical, but polite


148
Know the
Proposal Review Process
External
Panel
In-house
Review criteria
Background of reviewers


149
Know the Review Criteria
Slide 1 of 2
4 Scientific content and merit
4 Innovation and scope
4 Relevance of problem
4 Rigor of hypotheses


150
Know the Review Criteria
Slide 2 of 2
4 Feasibility of research design
4 Qualifications of Investigator(s)
4 Suitability of facilities
4 Impact on broader issues
(e.g., education)


151
Funding Mechanisms
4 Grants: financial awards in support of
of research projects with anticipated
but not guaranteed outcomes
4 Investigator–initiated grants or
unsolicited (maximum PI freedom)
4 Funding source-initiated grants
(restrictions placed by funding source)
4 Single vs. multiple investigator grants
4 Program project grants
(MD, long-term, project based)


152
Federal Funds for Total Research & Development
Fiscal Years 2004 & 2005 (Dollars in Billions)

http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06313/pdf/tables.pdf Table 4


153
NNI Budget by Agency
Fiscal Years 2006 & 2007 (Dollars in Millions)
http://www.nano.gov/html/about/funding.html


154
Funding Mechanisms
4 Cooperative agreements: Federally
employed scientists working with
non-federal organization
4 Direct involvement of funding agency
in project design
4 Contracts: Used to secure a product
or products according to specifications


155
Federal R&D for FY 2005
$103 Billion Total (Dollars in Billions)
DOD $48
47%
NIH $28
27%
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06313/pdf/tables.pdf Table 4
NASA
$8
8%
DOE
$8
8%
NucSec $4 4%
NSF $4 4%
Other $4
4%


156
Federal Engineering R&D
FY 2005 $9.1 Billion Total (Dollars in Billions)
DOT $0.4 4.4%
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06313/pdf/tables.pdf Table 22
NASA
$2.4
26.4% DOD
$3.0
33.0%
DOE
$2.0
22.0%
NSF
$0.7
7.7%
NIH $0.3 3.3%
Other $0.3
3.3%


157
Federal Academic S&E Support
FY 2005 $22.4 Billion Total (Dollars in Billions)
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06313/pdf/tables.pdf Table 59
NSF
NIH $16
71%
NSF
$3
14%
DOD $1 4%
NASA $1 4%
DOE $1
4%
Other
$1
3%


158
R&D Funding Sources
for Academic S&E
FY 2005 $43 Billion Total (Dollars in Billions)
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06323/tables/tab4.xls
NSF

Federal Programs $27
64%
Institutions
$8
18%
State & Local
$3
7%
Industry
$2
5%
All Other $3 7%


159
National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
FY 2007 Budget Request $1,278 Million (Dollars Below in Millions)
Other $20 2%
NASA $25 2%
NIST $86 7%
NSF $373
29%
DOD $345
27%
DOE $258
20%
NIH
$170
13%
www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2007/spec.pdf


160
NNI Budget by Agency
Fiscal Years 2006 & 2007 (Dollars in Millions)
http://www.nano.gov/html/about/funding.html


161
4 Federal programs $27.4 64%
4 Institutions $7.8 18%
4 State & Local $2.8 7%
4 Industry $2.1 5%
4 All Other Sources $2.8 7%
R&D Funding Sources
for Academic S&E
FY 2004 ($42.9 Billion Total – in Billions Below)
http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06315/nsf06315.pdf


162
How Do We
Get Information?
4 Web Sources:
4 http://www.nsf.gov
4 http://afosr.sciencewise.com
4 http://www.onr.navy.mil
4 http://www.darpa.mil/baa/
4 http://www.nih.gov/grants/
4 http://www.pr.doe.gov


163
How Do We
Get Information?
4 Community of Science
4 http://www.cos.com/
4 Commerce Business Daily
4 http://cbd.cos.com/
4 Federal Information Exchange
4 http://www.sciencewise.com/fedix/
4 University Research Web Page – Resources
4 http://rgp.ufl.edu/research/


164
Industry
4 SBIR’s
4 Phase I small, Phase II larger, but …
4 GOALI
4 Contracts
4 Shorter term, deliverables,
frequent reports, milestones,
changing context, IP issues
4 Consulting vs. research project


165
Internal Sources
4 Start-up packages
4 Special programs
4 Year-end funds
4 Space
4 Faculty time
4 Matching funds
4 Fellowships
4 FYI (rgp.ufl.edu/fyi)


166
Foundations
4 Office of Sponsored Research
can help identify
4 Determine
4 Appropriateness of idea for
Foundation funding
4 Customary level of funding
4 Application process
4 Face-to-face meeting desirable?


167
Foundations
4 Private Foundations
4 Operating: generally conduct research
with own staff
4 Company-sponsored:
Small awards, specific
4 Independent
4 National Voluntary Health Organizations
4 Public Foundations


168
Time Management


169
Academic Freedom
Lots of it and no personal assistant!
Mandated time
• classroom
• grading
• report writing
• committee meeting
Discretionary time
• literature reading
• proposal writing
• email
• session chair
Academic tasks
• teaching
• research
• book writing
Non-academic tasks
• calendar
• filing
• student recruiting


170
Time Management
Exercises
4 Write down the most important
time saver that you use
4 Write down the largest time
waster you face
4 Share tips


171
Know Yourself
4 Perform time audit
4 For one week write what you do
every 30 min
4 When do you work best?
4 Internal – time alone
4 External – time in groups
4 Cannot do everything – know
priorities
4 Decide flexibility level you can
tolerate


172
Task Classification
Agenda vs. Calendar
Importance
U
r
g
e
n
c
y I
II IV
III


173
Classifications
• Urgent and important. (Deadline-driven
activities that further your goals.)
• Important but not urgent. (Long-term
professional, family, and personal activities
that further your goals.)
• Urgent but not important. (Much e-mail,
many phone calls and memos, things that are
important to someone else but don’t further
your goals.)
• Neither urgent nor important. (TV,
computer games, junk mail.)
S.P Covey, A.R. Merrill, and R.R. Merrill, First Things First, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1994.


174
Recommendations
4 Commit to several hours a week on
Quadrant II items, and cut down on
time spent in Quadrants III and IV.
4 Work on Quadrant I and II items
when you’re at peak efficiency.
4 If you’re trying to write a book, put it
on the Quadrant II list, otherwise it
will never get written.


175
Tips
4 55 hours/week doing professor stuff
is about right
4 More productive, creative,
accurate
4 Touch stuff only once, if possible
4 Ask for help when needed
4 Delegate with clear instructions of
expectations


176
More Tips
4 Schedule meetings at office of others –
you can leave
4 Know your business and say no to others
4 Learn to say no nicely
4 “I’m sorry, but I’ve just got too many other
commitments right now.”
4 “Good talking to you, but I’ve got something
I need to attend to now.”
4 Learn to finish
4 Don’t keep revising (perfectionist) needlessly
4 One writing/proofing on low importance
items


177
Keeping track of it all
4 Use a calendar
+ Develop own system
+ Schedule all priority activities: research, writing,
student advising/direction, professional development
+ Schedule teaching preparation time (not too early
or late – will make a better teacher)
4 Schedule large blocks of time
+ Understand work ‘start-up’ time, location
4 Schedule personal time
+ Vacations, growth, extra fun day on travel
4 Stick to it (as much as possible)
+ Others will adapt


178
Keeping track of it all
4 Use a to do list
+ Card system, PDA, Outlook
+ Identify time for daily update
4 Filing system vs. Piling system
+ Decide appropriate level of effort
+ Larger chunks, delegate, electronic
4 Develop system for time sensitive stuff


179
(Optimal) Procrastination
4 Fun vs. urgent vs. important
activities
4 Fear factor is often cause
+ Break into smaller tasks
+ Schedule it
+ Delegate it
+ Reward or punish self


180
E-mail
4 Assume that your e-mail messages
are not private.
4 Never write a “hot” e-mail message.
It is too easy to send by accident. Don’t
ever send messages when you are angry.
4 Make e-mail brief and proof-read it.
4 Don’t read other people’s e-mail.
4 Respond to e-mail in batches.


181
E-mail
4 If you will be away, have the e-mail
automatically reply that you will
respond when you return.
4 Aliases are convenient for sending
e-mail to a number of people, but
the messages loses its personal touch.
4 Requests for people to do work are
much more effective if they are
addressed to only one person instead
of to a group.


182
Telephone
4 If the phone rings at a truly bad
time, such as the moment you’re
leaving for class, do not answer it.
4 If a call is going to take more time
than you have available, it is polite
to ask if you can call back.


183
Telephone
4 With sales people you do not want
to talk to, be polite but firm –
”I’m really not interested.” If the
caller is rude and ignores this,
repeat the statement and hang up.
4 If you leave an important message
on an answering machine, make
sure you provide a way (e-mail or
return call) for the recipient to let
you know the message was received
and understood.


184
Postal Mail
4 The goal is to handle each item
only once.
4 Don’t handle mail (or e-mail) during
your prime work-alone times.
4 Sort the mail into valid, invalid, and
semi-valid. Discard invalid mail or
save it for a very low energy period.
4 Open the semivalid mail, scan it,
and reclassify it.


185
Postal Mail
4 Open the valid mail, and as much
as possible complete whatever you
have to do – respond, file it, talk to
someone about it, or discard it at
one sitting.
4 Do something to move mail forward
every time you pick it up.

4 Write directly on the letter to
respond to the sender or to make
notes for yourself.


186
Postal Mail
4 Respond immediately to the rare
truly urgent item by fax, e-mail,
or phone.
4 When you send mail, include your
e-mail address, phone, and fax
numbers, and perhaps the URL to
your homepage on the letterhead.
4 Envelopes should have return
addresses.


187
Postal Mail
4 Letters should be polite, short,
and to the point.
4 If you are really angry about
something, write a letter to calm
down, but do not send it. After
you have calmed down, put this
“hot” letter in the trash.


188
Time Management
#1. Set goals & prioritize.
#2. Delegate. How can we do this?
+ To secretaries & assistants
+ To graduate students and
undergraduates as part of learning
experience. (They don’t work for you!)
+ Give clear assignments & responsibility
for details.
+ Check on results & give feedback.
+ Give credit.
#3. Use efficient processes.


189
To Achieve Flow, You Need:
1. Sense of control.
2. To set realistic goals & subgoals
3. Meaningful rules (e.g., sports & games)
4. Feedback on progress
5. Focused attention
6. Balance between challenge & skills
7. To increase challenge & skills
to prevent boredom


190
Truths
4 There are 24 hours in a day –
everyone is given the same each day
4 Rate at which humans communicate
is relatively constant
4 If you are doing something you
really enjoy, it is not called work
4 A proposal will not be funded
if not submitted


191
Contacting
Funding Agencies


192
Matching Your Problem
with Funding Source
4 Most important problems/good
solutions are eventually funded
4 Explore
4 Funding source’s mission,
interests, priorities
4 Be flexible


193
Why Contact
Program Officer
4 Establish credibility
4 Guidelines on how to shape
your proposal to match
program needs
4 Increase funding probability
4 Save time


194
Who to Contact
4 Identify suitable agency
4 Identify suitable person at agency
4 Ask colleague/advisor
4 Search website
4 Read solicitation
4 Industry: research expert
4 Professional meetings
4 Other networking opportunities


195
The Program Director’s Perspective
4 Program Director’s job is to assemble
the best research program
4 Must convince others to fund
programs
4 Wants the best people on board
4 Often looking for breakthroughs
4 Open to new ideas
4 Not necessarily expert in your field
4 Has agency responsibilities, but also
personal agendas


196
Learn more about Program Director
4 Ask colleague about monitor’s
style
4 Probe funding patterns
4 Education
4 Own research area
4 Rotator or staff
4 Program responsibilities


197
How to Contact
the Program Officer
4 Email
4 Solicitation,website
4 Simple questions, phone
appointment
4 Phone call
4 Prepare questions in advance
4 Be professional and yourself
4 Listen carefully


198
How to Contact
the Program Officer
4 Personal Visit
4 By appointment

4 During related activity (panel,
workshop)
4 Show presentation slides on laptop


199
How to Contact
the Program Officer
4 White paper / pre-proposal /
letter of intent
4 Increasingly required /
recommended
4 Program officers generally willing
to offer feedback on research
summary for fit, priority, and
approach


200
What to Ask
Key Advice
4 Priority of topic
4 Project plan
4 Special initiatives
4 Equipment needs
4 Success rates
4 Timing of submission
4 Award size
4 Review process and
criteria
Often on Website
4 Deadlines
4 Application process
4 Currently funded
work
4 New faculty
programs
4 Typical award size


201
White Paper
4 Gives essence of idea
4 Contains goals and scope of study,
significance, brief description of
methods, hypotheses & expected
results
4 Clear, concise, accurate, exciting
4 Addresses broader impact
4 Usually 1-2 pages
4 Conventions vary by field/agency –
seek samples


202
Proposal Title
4 Present in clear, concise,
meaningful manner
4 Avoid jargon and overstatement
4 Be careful with buzzwords
(some folks are annoyed)
4 Avoid cute and too informal titles


203
Other Ways to Contact Program Officer
4 Attend open workshops
4 Attend agency conferences
4 Meet with at professional/research
society meetings
4 Get on schedule during campus
visits
4 Invite for seminar
4 Volunteer to review, especially panels.
For CBET, volunteer to ‘Become a Reviewer’ at:
www.nsf.gov/eng/cbet/reviewer/


204
Intellectual Property
4 Some faculty uncomfortable
discussing ideas before funded
4 Although care should be taken,
generally best to be open
4 Industry: Sometimes disclosure
agreement in place, may want
to disclose ideas before


205
Tips
4 Second time phenomenon
4 Federal fiscal year begins 10/1
4 Get involved in proposing
program ideas
4 Attend program reviews
when appropriate


206
If Match Not Found
4 Don’t take it personally
4 You saved considerable time and
made a contact
4 Can idea be changed to match interest?
4 Discuss what you learned with colleagues
4 “Press On”: Persistence
4 “Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence.
4 “Talent will not: nothing is more common than
unsuccessful people with talent.
4 “Genius will not: unrewarded genius is almost a
proverb.
4 “Education alone will not: the world is full of educated
derelicts.
4 “Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.”


207
Closing Remarks


208
Establish Credibility
4 Amongst peers, research community,
funding agencies
4 Methods include
4 Write review articles, attend meetings,
visits to funding agencies
4 Presentations, workshop mode conferences
4 Review panels, volunteer in societies,
white papers
4 Seminar chair, request papers,
preliminary results
4 New faculty often given special consideration


209
Establishing
Network/Credibility
Exercise
Complete Worksheet 4


210
COMMON OBJECTIVES FOR NEW FACULTY

1. Build Network in Community
4 List Five Research Peers: 1. _________________________
2. _________________________ 3. _________________________
4. _________________________ 5. _________________________

4 List most important conference/workshop you should attend:
1. Research: _________________________________________
2. Professional: _________________________________________
3. Education: _________________________________________
4 List Eight Senior Professionals who will be asked to write
recommendation/evaluation letters:
1. _________________________ 2. _________________________
3. _________________________ 4. _________________________
5. _________________________ 6. _________________________
7. _________________________ 8. _________________________

4 What is the Leading Laboratory/Group in your field?
________________________________________________________


CAREER DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET 4a


211
2. Establish Credibility
4 List the two best journals in your field:
1. _________________________
2. _________________________
4 Title of review article to be written in next five years:
___________________________________________________
4 What is the most original idea you are now working on?

___________________________________________________
4 What award should you be nominated for in the next five
years?
___________________________________________________


CAREER DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET 4b


212
Attitude
4
Don’t take yourself or tenure race too seriously.
4 Tenure doesn’t help if you’re dead.
4
Lighten up
4 Humor & laughter
4 Bad things happen to all professors – don’t dwell
on them or let them get you down.
4 Take the university as it is – reform it later.
4
Take care of yourself
4 Eat right, exercise, sleep enough
4 Spend time with “family”
4 If you know something is right thing to do, do it!


213
Please take a few minutes
to complete our survey
Good Luck!


214
Bibliography

How to create a WINNING PROPOSAL, Jill Ammon-
Wexler and Catherine Carmel, Mercury Communications
Corporation, 1978
How to Write a Successful Research Grant Application,
Edited by Willo Pequegnat and Ellen Stover, Plenum Press,
1995
The Winning Proposal, Herman Holtz, Terry Schmidt,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981
Proposal Preparation, Rodney D. Stewart, Ann L. Stewart,
John Wiley & Sons, 1984
Writing Grants Step by Step, Mim Carlson, Jossey-Bass
Inc., 1995


215
Bibliography

Handbook for Writing Proposals, Robert J. Hamper,
L. Sue Baugh, NTC Business Books, 1995
Engineer's and Manager's Guide to Winning
Proposals, Donald V. Helgeson, Artech House, 1994
The Complete Book of Model Fund-Raising Letters,
Roland Kuniholm, Prentice Hall, 1995
Writing Successful Science Proposals, Andrew J.
Friedland and Carol L. Folt, Yale University Press, New
Haven & London, 2000


216
Bibliography
The "How To" Grants Manual, Successful Grantseeking
Techniques for Obtaining Public and Private Grants, Third
Edition, David G. Bauer, American Council on Education, Oryz
Press, 1995
Applying for Research Funding, Joanne B. Ries and Carl G.
Leukefeld, SAGE Publications, 1995
How to Write Proposals That Produce, Joel P. Bowman and
Bernadine P. Branchaw, Oryz Press, 1992
Teaching Engineering. Phil Wankat,
https://engineering.purdue.edu/ChE/News_and_Events/Publications/teaching_engineering/index.html
The Academic Scientists’ Tookit
http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/feature/cdctoolkit.shtml

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