Systems of Government

A democratic society is one in which political power resides with the people who live there: it is they who are sovereign.

Direct democracy: Ancient Greek City State concept in which citizens( note the Greek concept of citizens) directly participated in governmental affairs. It meant that it was a government by the people. Not every body was a citizen. Women and slaves were excluded, did not have voting rights, and debarred from participation. Only the free males could participate.

(ii) popular consent and accountability through free. strictly speaking. • Core values associated with liberal democratic political system are: (a) Guarantee of broad measure of civil and human rights. • Definition: It is. These values are ensured by devices like: (i) a constitution. (ii) a bill of rights. (iii) separation of powers.Systems of Government Conti’ed • Idea of Representative Democracy: Today ancient city states have been replaced by bigger units of government with a greater range of responsibilities delivered to larger numbers of people. and (v) crucially.’ It has two fundamental characteristics. Government is ‘liberal’ in terms of the core values which underpin it and ‘democratic’ concerning the political arrangements that exist within it. fair and meaningful elections. (b)tradition belief in limited government. (iii) governments in liberal democratic system are accountable to the legislature. a form of representative democracy where the political power of the government is moderated by a constitution which protect the rights and freedoms of individuals and minorities (also called constitutional liberalism): . Other characteristics of the liberal democratic system are: (i) democratic government’s action must reflect the will of the people( or at least the majority of them). (iv) a system of checks and balances. A political system was invented through which the notion of popular sovereign was reconciled with an effective decision-making process. This type political system is known as ‘liberal democracy. the rule of law.

Systems of Government Conti’ed Ingredients of Liberal Democracy • • • • • • • • • Popular Support of the Government Political Competition Alternation in Power Popular Representation Majority Rule Right of Dissent and Disobedience Political Equality Popular Consultation Free Press .

or the existence of freedom themselves. • Freedom of association . In democratic theory.Systems of Government Conti’ed Limits on Freedom Liberal Democracy The usual characteristics and array of freedom enjoyed in liberal democracies have. assembly and protest. . • Freedom of express. however. the common justification for these limits is that they are necessary to guarantee the existence of democracy.96). including speech. Each one of the above has justification for which there can be limits on these freedom (p. • Freedom of the press and access to alternative information sources. • Equality before law and due process under rule of law. certain limits on certain specific freedoms.

minorities. but is not restrained from encroaching on the liberty of individuals. violations of the existing legal limitations. The experience in some post-soviet states drew attention to the phenomenon.Systems of Government Conti’ed Illiberal Democracy • An illiberal democracy is a political system where democracy exists. . Bangladesh is an example of illiberal democracy. and the government elected by a democratic majority. although it is not of recent origin. This may be due to a lack of constitutional limitations on the power of the government (executive).

. • Participatory concept of democracy (Laws and policies are made through direct participation of the citizens).Systems of Government Conti’ed Four major contending conceptions of democracy • Minimalist conception of democracy • Aggregative conception of democracy (produces laws and policies that are close to the views of the median voters– with half to his left and other half to the right). • Deliberative conception of democracy (government by discussion).

Dominant party politics politics politics (p.K)------Limited Democracy( Mexico) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonpartisan ------. 90 ) .Systems of Government Conti’ed Spectrum of Government Power Democratic Government: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Perfect Democracy ----Democracy ( US. U.Two party or multiparty–---.

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