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Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH. Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine


The student will be able : to recognize workplace hazards

Worker Employment Workplace


Sumamur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji Masagung, Jakarta, 1994 Hal.48


In the workplace there are risk factors to the workers Workers can work better with high productivity if balance is fruitful from many factors When work is associated with health hazards, it may cause occupational diseases, be one of the multiple causes of other diseases or may aggravate existing ill health of non occupational origin

Factors related to work productivity 1. Common Diseases 2. Work Related diseases 3. Nutritional conditions 4. Work Environment 5. Planning and designing the relationships between people and machines 6. Mental or psychological condition 7. Workers welfare 8. Health Promotion 9. Health Facility 10.Supervision


1. 2. 3.

work load additional work load caused by work environment work capacity


Work load is a direct load caused by work Each work is a work load for the workers

Types of workload Physical : building worker Mentally : manager Socially : doctor


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Physical Factors Chemical Factors Biological Factors Physiological Factors Mental and Sociological Factors

Physical Factors
temperature humidity sound vibration radiation air pressure illumination

Chemical Factors

Gas Vapor Clouds Fume Smoke Fluids Solids Heavy metals (lead & mercury)

Animal Plant

Biological Factors Physiological Factors

Machine construction Ergonomics

Mental and Sociological Factor

work situation relationship between workers & owners

Work Capacity is the ability or workers to complete its task Factors that influence work capacity Skill Fitness Nutrition Gender Age Anthropometry

Strategy for Workplace assessment 1. 2. 3. 4. Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control of hazards

Workplace hazards
Type of workplace hazards Recognition of health hazards Evaluation of health hazards Controlling of health hazards

Type of Workplace Hazards

Hazardous Factor 1 Mechanical risk factor 2 Physiological strain and heavy physical work 3 Ergonomic factors Adverse Health Effect or other outcomes Occupational accident and injuries Musculoskeletal disorders Strain injuries. Low Back Pain Strain injuries Mental stress Lowered productivity and quality of work Noise induced hearing loss

4 Physical factors e.g noise, vibration

Type of Workplace Hazards

Hazardous Factor 5 Chemical hazards 6 Biological factors 7 Psychological strain Adverse Health Effect or other outcomes Intoxications, fibroses Cancers, allergies Infections Allergies Psychic stress Work dissatisfaction Depression

8 Psychosocial aspect of Conflict work Lowered productivity Lowered quality of work Mental stress

Recognition of health hazards

1. Inspection 2. Potential health hazards 3. Techniques used in recognizing health hazards

Evaluation of health hazards

1. Exposure measurement techniques 2. Interpretation of findings 3. Recommended exposure limits

How to prevent workplace hazard

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Substitution Ventilation Local exhauster Isolation Personal Protective Device Pre-placement health examination Periodically health examination Health and safety education

Controlling hazards in the workplace

1. Engineering controls 2. Work practice controls 3. Administrative controls

Engineering controls
These minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazards at the source or isolating the workers from the hazards E.g. Eliminating toxic chemical & substituting non toxic chemicals Enclosing work processes or confining work operations Installing general & local ventilation system

Work practice controls

These alter the manner in which a task is performed Some fundamental & easily implemented Work practice controls include : changing existing work practices to follow proper procedures that minimize exposures while operating production and control equipment Inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis Implementing good housekeeping procedures Providing good supervision Prohibiting eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum and applying cosmetics in regulated area

Administrative controls
These include : Controlling employees exposure by scheduling production and task, or both in ways that minimize exposure level. When Work practice or Engineering controls are not feasible or while such controls are being instituted, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used To be effective, PPE must be individually selected, properly fitted and periodically refitted, regularly maintained & replaced as necessary