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IS for Managers
Using the Systems Approach in Problem Solving
The systems approach to problem solving involves the following steps: Define the problem Gather data describing the problem Identify alternative solutions Evaluate the alternatives Select and implement the best alternative Follow up to determine if the solution is working
Obtaining Information System
Organizations can obtain new information systems in one of the following ways: Build the IS themselves Buy a prepackaged system from a software development company or consulting firm Ask an outside organization or consultant custom build a system to an organization’s specification
Information Systems Plan
1.PURPOSE OF THE PLAN: overview of plan contents, changes in current situation, firm’s strategic plan, current organization, key business processes, management strategy 2. STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLAN: current situation, current organization, changing environments, major goals of plan
SYSTEMS: major systems supporting business functions & processes, major current capabilities (hardware, software, database, telecommunications), difficulties meeting requirements, anticipated future demands
4. NEW DEVELOPMENTS: new system projects (project descriptions, business rationale), new capabilities required (hardware, software, database, telecommunications, internet)
major training initiatives. internal reorganization. potential savings. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY: acquisition plans. financing. 5.Contd. personnel strategy 6. acquisition 7/12/2012 6 . management controls. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN: anticipated difficulties. progress reports 7. BUDGET REQUIREMENTS: requirements. milestones & timing. organizational realignment.
easily identifiable operational goals Shaped by industry.CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS (CSFs) Small number. manager. environment Believed to assure firm’s success Used to determine organization’s information requirements 7/12/2012 7 .
energy standards 7/12/2012 8 .CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS example: PROFIT CONCERN GOALS (AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY): earnings per share. market share. new product CSF: styling. quality dealer system. return on investment. cost control.
meeting government regulations. efficient use of resources.CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS example: NONPROFIT CONCERN GOALS (HOSPITAL): Excellent health care. future health needs CSF: Regional integration with other hospitals. improved monitoring of regulations 7/12/2012 9 .
quality.Spectrum of Organizational Change AUTOMATION: using technology to perform tasks efficiently / effectively RATIONALIZATION OF PROCEDURES: streamline sops. maximize benefits of technology Paradigm shift 7/12/2012 10 . service. eliminate bottlenecks BUSINESS REENGINEERING: radical redesign of processes to improve cost.
a complete reconception of how the system should function 7/12/2012 11 .Paradigm Shift PARADIGM: A complete mental model of how a complex system functions A PARADIGM SHIFT: Involves rethinking the nature of the business. the organization.
efficiently 7/12/2012 12 . speed development WORK-FLOW MANAGEMENT: Streamlining process to move documents easily.BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR) REENGINEERING: Redesigning business processes to lower cost.
Effective Reengineering Steps 1. Build prototype of new process 7/12/2012 13 . Identify process to be redesigned 3. Identify opportunities for applying information technology 5. measure performance of existing processes 4. Understand. Develop business vision. process objectives 2.
building and maintaining information systems is known as systems analysis and design The term systems development life cycle (SDLC) is used to describe the life of an information system right from its conception till its retirement 7/12/2012 14 .Systems Development: An Overview Activities involved in producing an IS solution to an organizational problem or opportunity are called systems development This is a structured kind of problem solving with distinct activities moving from one step to the other The process of designing.
Contd. Large complex problems are decomposed into smaller once to arrive at better solutions These smaller problems are solved through small computer programs The final system is built by combining these smaller computer program Systems development process starts when management realize that a particular business system needs improvement 7/12/2012 15 .
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Systems Analysis The main focus of this phase is to have a thorough understanding of the organization’s current way of doing things in the area for which the system is being built The first sub phase of this phase is determining systems requirements that is done by working closely with the users and determining what is expected from the new system 7/12/2012 17 .
Contd. questionnaires. information are organized using data. Once these requirements are collected. processes and logic modeling tools Systems requirements are collected through interviews. observations. document analysis etc This phase also includes feasibility study to determine if the solution being developed is feasible financially technically and organizationally 7/12/2012 18 .
Contd. Analysis of problem to be solved with an Information system Feasibility study: can problem be solved within constraints? 7/12/2012 19 .
software.FEASIBILITY TECHNICAL: Assess hardware. technical resources ECONOMIC: Will benefits outweigh costs? OPERATIONAL: Is solution desirable within existing conditions? INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS: Detailed statement of new system needs 7/12/2012 20 .
Designing interfaces and dialogues . following activities are performed: .Designing forms and reports .Designing databases and files .Designing processing and logic 7/12/2012 21 .Systems Design This phase suggests as to how the system would meet the information requirements determined in the analysis phase So the system is designed based on the details provided through the previous phase At this stage.
data as needed by applications PHYSICAL DESIGN: physical location of components and data 7/12/2012 22 .Contd. Details how system will meet needs: LOGICAL DESIGN: components.
timing INPUT: Origins. speed requirements. where 7/12/2012 23 . data entry USER INTERFACE: Simplicity. how. errors DATABASE DESIGN: Logical data relations. timing of outputs MANUAL PROCEDURES: What activities. content. flow.DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS OUTPUT: Medium. efficiency. logic. required reports. program modules. record specifications PROCESSING: Computations. who performs them. file organization & design. feedback. volume.
output. develop training modules. catastrophe plans. identify training facilities 24 7/12/2012 .DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS CONTROLS: Input. procedural SECURITY: Access controls. initiate new procedures. processing. user CONVERSION: Transfer files. systems. select testing modules. cut over to new system TRAINING: Select training techniques. audit trails DOCUMENTATION: Operations.
Design Specifications ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES: Task redesign. reporting relationships 7/12/2012 25 . process design. organization structure design. job design.
Programming Specifications prepared in the design phase are then translated into the software program codes in this stage Following two approaches are followed for this: .Software programs are written within the organization itself .Application software packages are purchased for this 7/12/2012 26 .
Testing This stage is very important to ensure that the system developed is capable of producing the right results under known circumstances This involves the following aspects: .Unit testing .Acceptance testing 7/12/2012 27 .System testing .
Phased This also involves the training of the users and proper documentation of the system 7/12/2012 28 .Parallel .Direct cutover .Pilot study .Conversion At this stage the organization switches over to the new system from the old one One of the following approaches can be used for this: .
Production and Maintenance After conversion. the system is in production The system is reviewed here technically as well as by the end users in order to determine the requirement of any modifications 7/12/2012 29 .
Approaches to IS Development Traditional Systems Development Approach Prototyping Rapid Application Development Object Oriented Approach 7/12/2012 30 .
Steps in Systems Development Process Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) has the following five primary phases: System identification. selection and planning System analysis System design System implementation System maintenance 7/12/2012 31 .
duration. Selection and Planning The main goal of systems identification and selection is to identify and select a development project from all projects that could be performed The main focus is the ease with which existing hardware and systems can be integrated with the proposed system Other focus area include: cost.Systems Identification. complexity and risk 7/12/2012 32 .
potential benefits and costs and other relevant factors Once all these information are collected and analyzed. a summary planning document is reviewed and compared with other projects Once the project is accepted. systems analysis starts 7/12/2012 33 .Contd. In the project planning phase the analysts work with the customers to collect a broad range of information to gain an understanding of project size.
documentation.System Implementation This phase focuses on transforming the system design into a working information system that can be used by the organization The activities included are software programming and testing Besides this other activities include preparing the organization fir using the new is through system conversion. user training and support 7/12/2012 34 .
Approaches of System Implementation Parallel Direct cutover Pilot study Phased approach Documentation 7/12/2012 35 .
implemented changes are reviewed and tested before implementation 7/12/2012 36 .System Maintenance In this phase. a system change is designed and implemented Like initial development of the system. maintenance requests from the system users are collected If the request is analyzed as to how the proposed change might alter the system and what business benefits might result from that change If the change request is approved.
Adaptive maintenance . The system maintenance process is parallel to the process of initial development of the is During this phase the largest part of the systems development effort occurs Maintenance activity could be of one of the following types: .Preventive maintenance 7/12/2012 37 .Corrective maintenance .Contd.Perfective maintenance .
Prototyping : An Overview Prototype refers to a working model of an information system application But it does not contain all the features or perform all the necessary functions of the final system However. it includes sufficient elements to enable individuals to determine what they like or don’t like and also to identify features to be added or changed It is a process of building experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation 7/12/2012 38 .
Characteristics of Prototypes The prototype is a live. working application The purpose is to test the assumptions made by analysts and the users about required system features These are created quickly They evolve through an iterative process Prototypes are relatively inexpensive to build 7/12/2012 39 .
Uses of Prototyping Prototyping has the following two primary uses: Acts as an effective device for clarifying user requirements It is used for verifying the feasibility of a system design 7/12/2012 40 .
Steps in Prototype Method Identify known requirements Develop working model Use prototype Review prototype Repeat as needed 7/12/2012 41 .
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Alternative Uses of Prototype Abandon application Implement prototype Redevelop prototype Begin new prototype 7/12/2012 43 .
Rapid Application Development (RAD Approach) Process for developing systems in short time period Uses prototyping. fourth-generation tools. and close teamwork to move progressively closer to correct design A prototype is a small-scale representative or working model of the proposed system Iterative (or spiral) process of developing demo or working models Refined based upon user review 7/12/2012 44 .
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Develop system rapidly: Prototyping 4th GENERATION TOOLS Close teamwork among users & specialists 7/12/2012 45 .
Advantages Disadvantages Prototype may meet requirements but not be best design Systems specifications often not adequately spelled out 46 Helps users define requirements Encourages active user participation Errors and omissions tend to be detected earlier Builds enthusiasm and acceptance for system 7/12/2012 .Contd.
The Object Oriented Approach OO approach –this approach views an information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks Object – a component in the computer system that can respond to messages. 7/12/2012 47 . OO Design –defining all of the types of objects necessary to communicate with people and devices in the system and refining the definition of each type of object so it can be implemented with a specific language or environment OO Programming –writing statements in a programming language to define what each type of object does. including the messages that objects send and receive.
Oriented Software Development De-emphasizes procedures Shifts focus from models & data To objects. which combine data & procedures Objects reusable SYSTEM: classes. relationships Reduces development time & cost 7/12/2012 48 .Object . objects.
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORE ACTIVITY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION IDENTIFY PROBLEM(S) SPECIFY SOLUTIONS ESTABLISH INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS CREATE LOGICAL DESIGN SPECS CREATE PHYSICAL DESIGN SPECS MANAGE TECHNICAL REALIZATION OF SYSTEM TRANSLATE DESIGN SPECS INTO PROGRAM CODE SYSTEMS DESIGN PROGRAMMING 7/12/2012 49 .
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORE ACTIVITY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION IDENTIFY PROBLEM(S) SPECIFY SOLUTIONS ESTABLISH INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS SYSTEMS DESIGN CREATE LOGICAL DESIGN SPECS CREATE PHYSICAL DESIGN SPECS MANAGE TECHNICAL REALIZATION OF SYSTEM TRANSLATE DESIGN SPECS INTO PROGRAM CODE PROGRAMMING 7/12/2012 50 .
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT CORE ACTIVITY TESTING DESCRIPTION UNIT TEST SYSTEMS TEST ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN CONVERSION PREPARE DOCUMENTATION TRAIN USERS & TECHNICAL STAFF CONVERSION MAINTENANCE OPERATE SYSTEM EVALUATE SYSTEM MODIFY SYSTEM 51 7/12/2012 .
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