Thermal Planning of A Power Plant Steam Generator

P M V Subbarao Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department I I T Delhi

Planning for Realization of Constant Pressure Heat Addition……

Basic Geometry of A Furnace

Thermal Planning of A SG

•Loss due to moisture in air.

Heat gained by boiling water 40%

•Loss due to moisture in fuel.
•Loss due to combustion generated moisture. •Dry Exhaust Gas Losses

Fuel Energy 100%

Hot gas

•~ 4 --- 5%

Flue gas

•Heat loss from furnace surface. Heat gained by •Combustion Losses

superheater & reheater 40%

Heat gained by economizer & air preheater 12%

Sequence of Energy Exchange from Flue Gas to Steam

FLUE GAS

PLATEN SH RH
ECONOMIZER

EVAPORATOR

PENDENT SH

COVECTIVE SH

Mechanism of Heat Exchange in Furnace Furnace Exit

Hot Exhaust gases Heat Radiation & Convection

Flame Burner

Structure of Furnace Wall

Boiler Furnace
• Structurally boiler furnace consists of the combustion space surrounded by water walls. • The furnace volume is designed to perform: • Release of the chemical energy of fuel by combustion • The first task of combustion technology is • to burn the fuel efficiently and steadily, • to consume controlled excess air (as little as possible), • To generate a flame with controlled shape which will generate lowest amount of pollutants. • The furnace walls are designed to perform: • Transfer of heat from the furnace to the working fluid inside the water walls. • The important task of furnace heat removal is to produce a controlled Furnace Exit Gas Temperature (FEGT). • FEGT is an important aspect of boiler safety.

Thermal (Heat Transfer) Performance of A Furnace
• The flame transfers its heat energy to the water walls in the furnace by Radiation. • Convective Heat Transfer < 5%. • Only Radiation Heat Transfer is Considered! • Complexities: • Non uniform temperature of tubes. • Variation of furnace gas temperature along its
– Height – Width – Depth.

Non uniform Heat Flux !!!!!

Cross-sectional distribution of Temperature

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