Thermal Planning of A Power Plant Steam Generator

P M V Subbarao Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department I I T Delhi

Planning for Realization of Constant Pressure Heat Addition……

Basic Geometry of A Furnace

Thermal Planning of A SG

•Loss due to moisture in air.

Heat gained by boiling water 40%

•Loss due to moisture in fuel.
•Loss due to combustion generated moisture. •Dry Exhaust Gas Losses

Fuel Energy 100%

Hot gas

•~ 4 --- 5%

Flue gas

•Heat loss from furnace surface. Heat gained by •Combustion Losses

superheater & reheater 40%

Heat gained by economizer & air preheater 12%

Sequence of Energy Exchange from Flue Gas to Steam






Mechanism of Heat Exchange in Furnace Furnace Exit

Hot Exhaust gases Heat Radiation & Convection

Flame Burner

Structure of Furnace Wall

Boiler Furnace
• Structurally boiler furnace consists of the combustion space surrounded by water walls. • The furnace volume is designed to perform: • Release of the chemical energy of fuel by combustion • The first task of combustion technology is • to burn the fuel efficiently and steadily, • to consume controlled excess air (as little as possible), • To generate a flame with controlled shape which will generate lowest amount of pollutants. • The furnace walls are designed to perform: • Transfer of heat from the furnace to the working fluid inside the water walls. • The important task of furnace heat removal is to produce a controlled Furnace Exit Gas Temperature (FEGT). • FEGT is an important aspect of boiler safety.

Thermal (Heat Transfer) Performance of A Furnace
• The flame transfers its heat energy to the water walls in the furnace by Radiation. • Convective Heat Transfer < 5%. • Only Radiation Heat Transfer is Considered! • Complexities: • Non uniform temperature of tubes. • Variation of furnace gas temperature along its
– Height – Width – Depth.

Non uniform Heat Flux !!!!!

Cross-sectional distribution of Temperature

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