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P M V Subbarao Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department I I T Delhi

Thermal Performance analysis of A complex Geometry with Conjugate Heat Transfer…..

Super heaters

• Super heater heats the high-pressure steam from its saturation temperature to a higher specified temperature. • Super heaters are often divided into more than one stage.

– – – – Divisional Panel Super Heater. Platen Super Heater. Pendent Super Heater. Horizontal Super Heater.

• The enthalpy rise of steam in a given section should not exceed – 250 – 420 kJ/kg for High pressure. > 17 MPa – < 280 kJ/kg for medium pressure. 7 Mpa – 17 MPa – < 170 kJ/kg for low pressure. < 7 MPa

Different Arrangements of Platen Super heaters

High Capacity Radiative Super heaters

Divisional Panel

Bacn & Front Platen Super Heaters

Convective Super heaters

Pendent or Vertical Super heater

Horizontal Super heater

**Platen Superheater : Design Details
**

• Platen Superheater : Flat panels of tubes located in the upper part of the furnace, where the gas temperature is high. • The tubes of the platen SH receive very high radiation as well as a heavy dust burden. • Mechanism of HT : High Radiation & Low convection

Thermal Structure: No. of platens No. of tubes in a platen Diameter of a tube Length of a tube

**Geometry of Thermal Structure : Platen SH
**

• The outer diameter of platen SH is in the range of 32 – 42 mm. • The platens are usually widely spaced, S1 = 500 – 900 mm. • The tubes within a platen are closely spaced, S2/d = 1.1. • The number of parallel tubes in a platen is in the range of 15 – 35. • Design Problem: To find out

– Length of tubes. – Number of PSHs.

• Design Constraints: Max. allowable steam flow rates. • Allowable mass velocity in the tubes : 800 – 1000 kg/m2.sec

Stacked up SH Panels

Platen SH

Panel Div SH

Erection of Platen SH

Platen SH

**Thermal Balance Equation for SH
**

• Energy given out by flue gas: Steam in Steam out

**Q PSH = ϕ m g ( hgi , SH − hgo , SH )
**

• •

•Energy absorption for a SH:

**Q PSH = m steam ( hsteam,out − hsteam,in )
**

• •

Gas in

Gas out

Realization of required energy exchange:

**Q PSH = Q RAD + Q CON
**

4 4 Q PSH = APSH {σε eff F (T fl − Tsur , PSH ) + h(Tgas − Tsur , PSH )} •

•

•

•

**Mechanism of Heat Transfer : Generalized Newton’s Law of Cooling
**

• Rate of heat transfer from hot gas to cold steam is proportional to: • Surface area of heat transfer • Mean Temperature difference between Hot Gas and Cold Steam.

Thot gas,in Tcold steam,out

Q NEWTON ∝ Asur × ∆Tmean

•

Thot gas,out Tcold steam,in

**Equivalent Counter Flow Configuration
**

Thot gas,in Tcold steam,out Thot gas,in Thot gas,out Tcold steam,in

Thot gas,out Tcold steam,out Tcold steam,in

Log Mean Temperature Difference

∆TLMTD = Fconfig

∆Tmax − ∆Tmin ∆Tmax ln ∆Tmin

•

Rate of Heat Transfer

**Q NEWTON = U × Asur × ∆TLMTD
**

•U Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, W/m2.K

•

**Temperatures Across PSH
**

Capacity Tgas,in MW K 210 500 1583 1509 Tgas,out K 1363 1350 Tsteam,in K 653 677 Tsteam,out K 813 748 LMTD K 842 714

**Equivalent Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients
**

Capacity hconv hrad MW W/m2K W/m2K 210 500 32 52 102 130 hsteam W/m2K 4200 4400 U W/m2K 129 130 Area m2 892 1361 LMTD K 842 714

**Convective Superheater (Pendant)
**

• Convective super heaters are vertical type (Pendant ) or horizontal types. • The Pendant SH is always arranged in the horizontal crossover duct. • Pendant SH tubes are widely spaced due to high temperature and ash is soft. • Transverse pitch : S1/d > 4.5 • Longitudinal pitch : S2/d > 3.5. • The outside tube diameter : 32 – 51mm • Tube thickness : 3 – 7mm

S1 S2

**Temperatures Across PSH
**

Capacity Tgas,in MW K 210 500 1362 1350 Tgas,out K 1214 1235 Tsteam,in K 740 748 Tsteam,out K 819 713 LMTD K 473.8 509

**Equivalent Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients
**

Capacity hconv hrad MW W/m2K W/m2K 210 500 64 120 3700 hsteam W/m2K U W/m2K 120 130 Area m2 1315.8 1410 LMTD K 473.8 509

**Convective Superheater (Horizontal)
**

• • • • • • • • The horizontal SH are located in the back pass. The tubes are arranged in the in-line configuration. The outer diameter of the tube is 32 – 51 mm. The tube thickness of the tube is 3 – 7 mm. The transverse pitch : S1/d = 2 – 3. The longitudinal pitch :S2/d = 1.6 – 2.5. The tubes are arranged in multiple parallel sets. The desired velocity depends on the type of SH and operating steam pressures. • The outside tube diameter : 32 – 51mm • Tube thickness : 3 – 7mm

S2

S1

**Temperatures Across PSH
**

Capacity Tgas,in MW K 210 500 967 997 Tgas,out K 819 754 Tsteam,in K 610 632 Tsteam,in K 653 677 LMTD K 251.6 205.7

**Equivalent Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients
**

Capacity hconv hrad MW W/m2K W/m2K 210 500 101 11.7 4181 hsteam W/m2K U W/m2K 80 70.87 12810 Area m2 LMTD K 251.6 205.7

**Thermal Balance in Convective SH.
**

• The energy absorbed by steam

**Q abs ,con = m steam (hsup,out − hsup,in )
**

•

•

•

• The convective heat lost by flue gas Q con ,loss = KASH ∆T • Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer, K

K=

1 δ as + h g λ as

1 δ δ 1 + me + sc + λ me λ sc hs

S1 S2

Inline

S1 Staggered S2

Effectiveness Factor

• The ratio of the heat transfer between fouled and clean tubes.

K ψ= Ko

K =ψ k O =ψ

1 1 1 + hg hs

**Thermal Balance in Super Heater.
**

• The energy absorbed by steam

**Q abs ,con = m steam (hsup,out − hsup,in )
**

•

•

•

• The convective heat lost by flue gas Q con ,loss = UASH ∆T • Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer, U

Platen SH, U (W/m2 K) Pendent SH, U (W/m2 K) Convective SH, U (W/m2 K)

120 – 140 120 – 140 60 – 80

Reheater

• The pressure drop inside reheater tubes has an important adverse effect on the efficiency of turbine. • Pressure drop through the reheater should be kept as low as possible. • The tube diameter : 42 – 60mm. • The design is similar to convective superheaters. • Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient : 90 – 110 W/m2 K.

Economizer

• The economizer preheats the feed water by utilizing the residual heat of the flue gas. • It reduces the exhaust gas temperature and saves the fuel. • Modern power plants use steel-tube-type economizers. • Design Configuration: divided into several sections : 0.6 – 0.8 m gap

Tube Bank Arrangement

**Thermal Structure of Economizer
**

• • • • • • Out side diameter : 25 – 38 mm. Tube thinckness: 3 – 5 mm Transverse spacing : 2.5 – 3.0 Longitudinal spacing : 1.5 – 2.0 The water flow velocity : 600 – 800 kg/m2 s The waterside resistance should not exceed 5 – 8 %. Of drum pressure. • Flue gas velocity : 7 – 13 m/s.

**Thermal Balance in Economizer.
**

• The energy absorbed by steam

**Q abs ,con = m steam (heco,out − heco,in )
**

•

•

•

• The convective heat lost by flue gas Q con ,loss = UAeco ∆T • Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer, U

**Air Pre-Heater
**

• An air pre-heater heats the combustion air where it is economically feasible. • The pre-heating helps the following: • Igniting the fuel. • Improving combustion. • Drying the pulverized coal in pulverizer. • Reducing the stack gas temperature and increasing the boiler efficiency. • There are three types of air heaters: • Recuperative • Rotary regenerative • Heat pipe

Rotary or Regenerative Air Pre-Heater

**Rotary Plate type Pre-Heater
**

• • • • • Rotates with a low speed : 0.75 rpm. Weight : 500 tons. This consists of : rotor, sealing apparatus, shell etc. Rotor is divided into 12 or 24 sections and 12 or 24 radial divisions. Each sector is divided into several trapezoidal sections with transverse division plates. • Heat storage pales are placed in these sections.

Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater

**Stationary-Plate Type Air Pre-Heater
**

• The heat storage elements are static but the air/gas flow section rotates. • The storage plates are placed in the stator.

**Thermal Balance in Air Pre-Heater.
**

• The energy absorbed by air

**Q abs ,con = m air (haph,out − haph ,in )
**

•

•

•

• The convective heat lost by flue gas Q con ,loss = UAaph ∆T • Overall Coefficient of Heat Transfer, U

**For Recuperative APH
**

ha h s K =Ku h g + hs

For Regenerative APH

K u K ic K= 1 1 + x1 h g x 2 hs

Combustion Losses

C & R losses

Hot Exhaust Gas losses

Pendent SH Platen SH Furnace absorption Reheater

CSH

Economizer

APH

LMTD for various Devices

- Datum Feature Out Lines
- TeachersResources Web ( complete mathematics references)
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