Power Pl ant Turbi nes

P M V Subbarao
Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi
A Techno-economically feasible model for large Power Plants…………..

Using the steam to make the Power !

Rotating the shaft is the ultimate goal of any power plant.

As you have probably noticed, from the text and pictures on
Steam Generators, there is no shaft.

Which leads to the question:
"now that you have all this super energized steam or Gas, how do
you get work from it ? "
A boilers / Combustor is only one part of a larger operation,
granted, it's a large part but most important part of the operation
is it's ability to apply all this steam power.

The Steam Turbi ne

The more modern method of extracting mechanical energy from
thermal energy is the steam turbine.

Steam turbines have been the norm in various land based power
plants for many years.

Motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change
in momentum of a jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which
is free to rotate.

The steam is (partially or fully) expanded in a nozzle, resulting in
the emission of a high/medium/low velocity jet.

This jet of steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades,
mounted on a shaft.

Here it undergoes a change of direction and/or magnitude of
motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a
force.

Generation of Motive Power Through
Newton’s Second Law
Work is said to be done by a system iff
The sole effect external to the system
can be reduced to raising of weight
V
i
V
e
U
F
reaction

Analysis of Simple Stationary Impulse Blade

Consider a stationary 180 degree
curved blade.
• A jet with a velocity V
i
incidence on
the blade.

The blade deflects the jet along its
surface and finally the jet leaves with
a velocity V
e
.
• The magnitude of velocity vector
remains unchanged.
• However, the direction changes
through 180 degrees.
• V
e
= - V
i

• The change in velocity : - 2 V
i.

A jet with a finite mass flow rate will
experience a rate of change of
momentum, F
A
:
( )
i A
V m F 2 − ·

The force acting on the blade:
( )
i R
V m F 2

·
However, this force cannot develop any motive power.
V
i
V
e
F
A
F
R

V
ri
= V
ai
- U
V
re
= -V
ri
U
V
ae
= V
re
-U
V
ai
Analysis of Simple Moving Impulse Blade
( ) U V U U V U V V
ai ai ri ae
2 − − · − − − · − − ·
( ) U V V V V
ai ri re
− − · − · ∆ 2
( )
( ) U V m V m F
U V m V m F
ai R
ai A
− · ∆ ·
− − · ∆ ·
• •
• •
2
2
( )U U V m P
V U m U F P
ai b
R b
− ·
∆ · × ·


2

Kinetic power lost by the jet :
( ) { } ( )
2
2 2 2
2
2 2
U V V
m
V V
m
KP
ai
ai ae ai
− − − · − · ∆
• •
Power lost by jet = Power gained by the Blade
( )U U V m KP
ai
− · ∆

2
Thermodynamic efficiency of an impulse blade :
2
2

·
ai
mV
KP
input
Initial Power of the jet :
( ) ( )
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

·

·

·


2
2
2
.
4
4
2
2
ai ai
ai ai
input
blade i
V
U
V
U
V
U U V
V m
U U V m
KP
KP
ai
ai
η
An efficient impulse blade is bulky …… Suitable for Dense fluids…

Analysis of Simple Reaction Blade
V
ai
V
ri V
re
V
ae
U
U V V
ai ri
+ · U V V
re ae
− ·
Change in velocity :
ri re
V V V − · ∆
( )
( )
( )U V V m F U P
V V m F
V V m V m F
ri re R
ri re R
ri re A
− · − × − ·
− − ·
− · ∆ ·


• •
Motive Power Generated:

Thermodynamic efficiency of a Reaction blade :
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
.
2
2
2
ae
ae
V U V V
U V V
V m
U V V m
U V V m
KP KP
KP
ri re
ri re
ri re
ri re
exit
blade i
+ −

·
+ −

·
+ ∆

·



η
( )
( )
2
.
2 2
2 2
ae
V U U V V
U U V V
ai ae
ai ae
blade i
+ − −
− −
· η
Motive Power Generated:
( )U U V V m F U P
ai ae R
2 − − · − × − ·

A compact Reaction blade is inefficient ……Suitable for Thin fluids…

Simple Impulse-Reaction Blade
Jet will lose power both by Impulse and Reaction.
One important and essential element in all these cases is a nozzle.
V
ai
V
ae
V
ri
V
re
U

How To Provide A Mass Flow Rate

Area for Flow of Fluid.

Proportional to the Length of the Blade.

More Number of Blade Spacings.

Theory of Turbi ne Bl adi ng
BY
Dr. P M V Subbarao
Mechanical Engineering Department
I I T Delhi


U
V
ri
V
re
V
ai
U
V
ri
V
ai
Inlet Velocity Triangle
U
V
re
V
ae
Exit Velocity Triangle

U
V
ri
V
ai
V
re
V
ae
β
i
α
i
α
e
β
e
V
ai
: Inlet Absolute Velocity
V
ri
: Inlet Relative Velocity
V
re
: Exit Relative Velocity
V
ae
:Exit Absolute Velocity
α
i
: Inlet Nozzle Angle.
β
i
: Inlet Blade Angle.
β
e
: Exit Blade Angle.
α
i
: Exit Nozzle Angle.

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