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Facilities

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FACILITY LAYOUT PROBLEM


Once a firm has decided where a facility will be located, the next important decision is the Arrangement of people and Equipment within the facility.

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FACILITY LAYOUT PROBLEM


Facility Layout problem involves the location of departments (or sections) within the facility AND the arrangement of people and equipment within each department.

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FACILITY LAYOUT PROBLEM


The layout decision will certainly affect the Flow of materials, in-plant Transportation cost, equipment utilization, and general productivity and effectiveness of the business. Therefore, plant layout should be carefully arranged, AND It must satisfy specific objectives.

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Usually the layout is planned to minimize a particular criterion: For example, minimizing total traveling time, total cost, total delays, etc. There are also situations in which the layout may be designed to maximize a criterion: For example, maximize quality, flexibility, or space utilization.

FACILITY LAYOUT PROBLEM

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Objectives of Facility Layout


Minimize material handling costs Utilize space efficiently Utilize labor efficiently Eliminate bottlenecks Facilitate communication and interaction between workers, between workers and their supervisors, or between workers and customers Reduce manufacturing cycle time or customer service time

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Objectives of Facility Layout


Eliminate waste or redundant movement Facilitate the entry, exit, and placement of material, products, or people Incorporate safety and security measures Promote product and service quality Encourage proper maintenance activities Provide a visual control of operations or activities Provide flexibility to adapt to changing conditions Increase capacity

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Basic Types of Layouts


Process Layout
Machines grouped by process they perform

Product Layout
Linear arrangement of workstations to produce a specific product

Fixed Position Layout


Used in projects where the product cannot be moved

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Process Layout in Services


General purpose & flexible resources Lower capital intensity & automation Higher labor intensity Resources have greater flexibility Processing rates are slower Material handling costs are higher Scheduling resources & work flow is more complex Space requirements are higher

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Process Layout in Services


Womens Night wear Shoes Housewares

Womens dresses

Cosmetics and jewelry

Childrens department

Womens sportswear

Entry and display area

Mens department

Figure 5.1

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Manufacturing Process Layout


Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department

L L L L L

L L L L L

M M G G

M M G G
Grinding Department Receiving and Shipping

D D G G

D D P P

D D

D D

Painting Department

A
Assembly

Figure 5.2

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Manufacturing Process Layout


Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department

L L L L L

L L L L L

M M G G

M M G G
Grinding Department Receiving and Shipping

D D G G

D D P P

D D

D D

Painting Department

A
Assembly

Figure 5.2

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Manufacturing Process Layout


Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department

L L L L L

L L L L L

M M G G

M M G G
Grinding Department Receiving and Shipping

D D G G

D D P P

D D

D D

Painting Department

A
Assembly

Figure 5.2

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A Product Layout
Specialized equipment High capital intensity & wide use of automation Processing rates are faster Material handling costs are lower Less space required for inventories Less volume or design flexibility

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A Product Layout
In

Out
Figure 5.3

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Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts


PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. Description 2. Type of Process Sequential arrangement of machines Continuous, mass production, mainly assembly Standardized made to stock Stable High Special purpose Limited skills PROCESS LAYOUT Functional grouping of machines Intermittent, job shop batch production, mainly fabrication Varied, made to order Fluctuating Low General purpose Varied skills

3. Product 4. 5. 6. 7. Demand Volume Equipment Workers

Table 5.1

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Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts


PRODUCT LAYOUT 8. Inventory 9. Storage space 10. Material handling 11. Aisles 12. Scheduling 13. Layout decision 14. Goal 15. Advantage Table 5.1 Low in-process, high finished goods Small Fixed path (conveyor) Narrow Part of balancing Line balancing Equalize work at each station Efficiency PROCESS LAYOUT High in-process, low finished goods Large Variable path (forklift) Wide Dynamic Machine location Minimize material handling cost Flexibility

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Fixed-Position Layouts
Typical of projects Equipment, workers, materials, other resources brought to the site Highly skilled labor Often low fixed Typically high variable costs

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Designing Process Layouts


Minimize material handling costs Block Diagramming
Minimize nonadjacent loads Use when quantitative data is available

Relationship Diagramming
Based on location preference between areas Use when quantitative data is not available

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Block Diagramming
Create load summary chart Calculate composite (two way) movements Develop trial layouts minimizing number of nonadjacent loads

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Process Layout

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Example 5.1

Process Layout
Load Summary Chart
FROM/TO DEPARTMENT

Department 1 1 2 3 4 5 60

2 100 100 50

3 50 200

4 50 40

50 60

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Example 5.1

Process Layout
Load Summary Chart
FROM/TO DEPARTMENT

Department 1

Composite 23 24 13 12 45

1 100 50 2 200 50 3 60 40 50 4 100 60 Movements Composite Movements 5 50 200 loads 35 50 loads 150 loads 25 50 loads 110 loads 34 40 loads 100 loads 14 0 loads 60 loads 15 0 loads

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Example 5.1

Process Layout
Load Summary Chart
FROM/TO DEPARTMENT 1

2 5

Department 1

Composite 23 24 13 12 45

1 100 50 2 4 200 50 5 3 60 40 50 4 100 60 Movements Composite Movements 5 50 200 loads 35 50 loads 150 loads 25 50 loads 110 loads 34 40 loads 100 loads 14 0 loads 60 loads 15 0 loads

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Example 5.1

Process Layout
110

Load Summary Chart


FROM/TO 100 DEPARTMENT 1

200

Department 1

3150

50

5 50

Composite 23 24 13 12 45

1 100 50 60 2 4 200 50 5 3 60 40 50 4 100 1 60 40 Grid Movements Composite Movements 5 50 200 loads 35 50 loads 150 loads 25 50 loads 110 loads 34 40 loads 100 loads 14 0 loads 60 loads 15 0 loads

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Example 5.1

Process Layout
Load Summary Chart
FROM/TO 100 DEPARTMENT 1

150

4
40 60

Department 1

3
110

4 200

5 50

Composite 23 24 13 12 45

1 100 50 50 5 2 200 50 3 3 60 40 50 4 100 2 60 Grid Movements Composite Movements 5 50 200 loads 35 50 loads 150 loads 25 50 loads 110 loads 34 40 loads 100 loads 14 0 loads 60 loads 15 0 loads

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Block Diagrams

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Block Diagrams
(a) Initial block diagram

Figure 5.4

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Block Diagrams
(a) Initial block diagram (b) Final block diagram

Figure 5.4

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Relationship Diagramming
Used when quantitative data is not available Muthers grid displays preferences Denote location preferences with weighted lines

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Relationship Diagramming Example

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Relationship Diagramming Example


Production Offices Stockroom Shipping and receiving Locker room Toolroom

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Relationship Diagramming Example A Absolutely


Production Offices Stockroom Shipping and receiving Locker room Toolroom

O U A U O

A O U O

I X O

E U

necessary E Especially important I Important O Okay U Unimportant X Undesirable

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Relationship Diagramming Example A Absolutely


Production Offices Stockroom Shipping and receiving Locker room Toolroom

O U A U O

A O U O

I X O

E U

necessary E Especially important I Important O Okay U Unimportant X Undesirable

Figure 5.5

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Relationship Diagrams

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Relationship Diagrams
(a) Relationship diagram of original layout

Offices

Locker room

Shipping and receiving Key: A E I Production O U X

Stockroom

Toolroom

Figure 5.6

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Relationship Diagrams
(b) Relationship diagram of revised layout
Stockroom Shipping and receiving

Offices

Toolroom

Production

Locker room

Figure 5.6

Key: A E I O U X

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Computerized Layout Solutions


CRAFT - block diagramming CORELAP relationship diagramming Simulation

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Service Layouts
Usually process layouts due to customers needs Minimize flow of customers or paperwork Retailing tries to maximize customer exposure to products Computer programs consider shelf space, demand, profitability Layouts must be aesthetically pleasing

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Designing Product Layouts


Product layouts or assembly lines Develop precedence diagram of tasks Jobs divided into work elements Assign work elements to workstations Try to balance the amount work of each workstation

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Line Balancing
Precedence diagram
Network showing order of tasks and restrictions on their performance

Cycle time
Maximum time product spends at any one workstation

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Line Balancing
Precedence diagram example Cycle time
Network showing order of tasks= production time available restrictions Cd anddesired units of output on their performance

Cycle time Cd =

(8 hours x 60 minutes / hour) (120 units) Maximum time product

spends at any 480 one Cd = = 4 minutes workstation 120

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Flow Time vs Cycle Time


Cycle time = max time spent at any station Flow time = time to complete all stations

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Flow Time vs Cycle Time


Cycle time = max time spent at any station Flow time = time to complete all stations
1
4 minutes

2
4 minutes

3
4 minutes

Flow time = 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 minutes Cycle time = max (4, 4, 4) = 4 minutes

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Efficiency of Line
Efficiency Minimum number of workstations

E = nC a
where

t
i=1

N=

t
i=1

Cd

ti j n Ca Cd

= completion time for element i = number of work elements = actual number of workstations = actual cycle time = desired cycle time

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Line Balancing Process


1. Draw and label a precedence diagram. 2. Calculate the desired cycle time required for the line. 3. Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations. 4. Group elements into workstations, recognizing cycle time and precedence constraints. 5. Calculate the efficiency of the line. 6. Stop if theoretical minimum number of workstations on an acceptable efficiency level reached. If not, go back to step 4.

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Line Balancing

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Line Balancing
WORK ELEMENT A B C D Press out sheet of fruit Cut into strips Outline fun shapes Roll up and package PRECEDENCE A A B, C TIME (MIN) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORK ELEMENT A B C D Press out sheet of fruit Cut into strips Outline fun shapes Roll up and package PRECEDENCE A A B, C TIME (MIN) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3

B
0.1

0.2

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORK ELEMENT A B C D Press out sheet of fruit Cut into strips Outline fun shapes Roll up and package PRECEDENCE A A B, C TIME (MIN) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3

40 hours x 60 minutes / hour 2400 Cd = = = 0.4 minute 6,000 units 6000 0.1 A D 0.3 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4 1.0 N= = = 2.5 workstations 0.4 C 0.4 0.4 Example 5.2

0.2

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Line Balancing
WORK ELEMENT A B C D Press out sheet of fruit Cut into strips Outline fun shapes Roll up and package PRECEDENCE A A B, C TIME (MIN) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3

40 hours x 60 minutes / hour 2400 Cd = = = 0.4 minute 6,000 units 6000 0.1 A D 0.3 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4 1.0 N= = = 2.5 workstations 0.4 3 C 0.4 0.4 Example 5.2 workstations

0.2

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Line Balancing
WORK ELEMENT A B C D Press out sheet of fruit Cut into strips Outline fun shapes Roll up and package PRECEDENCE A A B, C TIME (MIN) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

B
0.1

0.2

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION ELEMENT REMAINING TIME REMAINING ELEMENTS

B
0.1

0.2

Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 ELEMENT A REMAINING TIME 0.3 REMAINING ELEMENTS B, C

B
0.1

0.2

Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 ELEMENT A B REMAINING TIME 0.3 0.1 REMAINING ELEMENTS B, C C, D

B
0.1

0.2

Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 2 ELEMENT A B C REMAINING TIME 0.3 0.1 0.0 REMAINING ELEMENTS B, C C, D D

B
0.1

0.2

Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 2 3 ELEMENT A B C D 0.2 REMAINING TIME 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 REMAINING ELEMENTS B, C C, D D none Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

B
0.1

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 2 3
Work ELEMENT station 1

REMAINING Work TIME


station 2

A B A, B C 0.3 D minute

0.3 C 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.1 minute

Work ELEMENTS station 3

REMAINING

B, C D C, D D 0.3 none minute Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

B
0.1

0.2

A C
0.4

D 0.3

Example 5.2

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Line Balancing
WORKSTATION 1 2 3
Work ELEMENT station 1

REMAINING Work TIME


station 2

A B A, B C 0.3 D minute

0.3 C 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.1 minute

Work ELEMENTS station 3

REMAINING

B, C D C, D D 0.3 none minute Cd = 0.4 N = 2.5

B
E=

0.2

1.0 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.3 + 0.4 0.1 A = = 0.833 = 83.3% D 0.3 1.2 3(0.4)

Example 5.2

0.4

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Computerized Line Balancing


Use heuristics to assign tasks to workstations
Ranked positional weight Longest operation time Shortest operation time Most number of following tasks Least number of following tasks

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Hybrid Layouts
Cellular layouts
Group machines into machining cells

Flexible manufacturing systems


Automated machining & material handling systems

Mixed-model assembly lines


Produce variety of models on one line

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Cellular Layouts
1. Identify families of parts with similar flow paths 2. Group machines into cells based on part families 3. Arrange cells so material movement is minimized 4. Locate large shared machines at point of use

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Parts Families

A family of similar parts


Figure 5.7

A family of related grocery items

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Original Process Layout


Assembly 4 5 2 1 3 10 11 Raw materials 6 7 8 12 9

A
Figure 5.8

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Part Routing Matrix


Parts A B C D E F G H
Figure 5.8

1 x

2 x

Machines 4 5 6 7 x x x x x x x x

8 9 10 11 12 x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

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Revised Cellular Layout


Assembly 8 10 9 12 11 4 Cell 1 Cell 2 6 Cell 3 7 2 1 3 5

A B C Raw materials
Figure 5.9

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Reordered Routing Matrix


Parts A D F C G B H E
Figure 5.9

1 x x x

2 x x

4 x x x

Machines 8 10 3 6 x x x x x x x x x

9 5

7 11 12

x x x x x x x

x x x x

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Advantages Of Cellular Layouts


Reduced material handling and transit time Reduced setup time Reduced work-inprocess inventory Better use of human resources Easier to control Easier to automate

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Disadvantages Of Cellular Layouts


Inadequate part families Poorly balanced cells Expanded training and scheduling of workers Increased capital investment

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Flexible Manufacturing Systems


Automated machining operations Automated material handling Automated tool changers Computer controlled system Designed around size of parts processed & average processing time for parts Can process wide variety of items quickly

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FMS Layouts

Figure 5.12

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FMS Layouts

Figure 5.12

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Mixed Model Assembly Lines


Produce multiple models in any order on one assembly line Issues in mixed model lines
Line balancing U-shaped line Flexible workforce Model sequencing

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Balancing U-Shaped Lines


Precedence diagram: A B C

Cycle time = 12 min

Figure 5.13

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Balancing U-Shaped Lines


Precedence diagram: A B C

Cycle time = 12 min

(a) Balanced for a straight line


A,B C,D E

9 min Efficiency =

12 min

3 min

24 24 = = .6666 = 66.7 % 3(12) 36

Figure 5.13

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Balancing U-Shaped Lines


Precedence diagram: A B C

Cycle time = 12 min

(a) Balanced for a straight line


A,B C,D E

(b) Balanced for a U-shaped line


A,B

9 min Efficiency =

12 min

3 min

24 24 = = .6666 = 66.7 % 3(12) 36


E

C,D

Figure 5.13

Efficiency =

24 24 = = 100 % 12 min 2(12) 24

12 min

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