# Princeton Mathematical Series

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## About this series

John Milnor, best known for his work in differential topology, K-theory, and dynamical systems, is one of only three mathematicians to have won the Fields medal, the Abel prize, and the Wolf prize, and is the only one to have received all three of the Leroy P. Steele prizes. In honor of his eightieth birthday, this book gathers together surveys and papers inspired by Milnor's work, from distinguished experts examining not only holomorphic dynamics in one and several variables, but also differential geometry, entropy theory, and combinatorial group theory. The book contains the last paper written by William Thurston, as well as a short paper by John Milnor himself. Introductory sections put the papers in mathematical and historical perspective, color figures are included, and an index facilitates browsing. This collection will be useful to students and researchers for decades to come.

The contributors are Marco Abate, Marco Arizzi, Alexander Blokh, Thierry Bousch, Xavier Buff, Serge Cantat, Tao Chen, Robert Devaney, Alexandre Dezotti, Tien-Cuong Dinh, Romain Dujardin, Hugo García-Compeán, William Goldman, Rotislav Grigorchuk, John Hubbard, Yunping Jiang, Linda Keen, Jan Kiwi, Genadi Levin, Daniel Meyer, John Milnor, Carlos Moreira, Vincente Muñoz, Viet-Anh Nguyên, Lex Oversteegen, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, Ross Ptacek, Jasmin Raissy, Pascale Roesch, Roberto Santos-Silva, Dierk Schleicher, Nessim Sibony, Daniel Smania, Tan Lei, William Thurston, Vladlen Timorin, Sebastian van Strien, and Alberto Verjovsky.

## Titles in the series (18)

- Theory of Lie Groups (PMS-8), Volume 8
This famous book was the first treatise on Lie groups in which a modern point of view was adopted systematically, namely, that a continuous group can be regarded as a global object. To develop this idea to its fullest extent, Chevalley incorporated a broad range of topics, such as the covering spaces of topological spaces, analytic manifolds, integration of complete systems of differential equations on a manifold, and the calculus of exterior differential forms. The book opens with a short description of the classical groups: unitary groups, orthogonal groups, symplectic groups, etc. These special groups are then used to illustrate the general properties of Lie groups, which are considered later. The general notion of a Lie group is defined and correlated with the algebraic notion of a Lie algebra; the subgroups, factor groups, and homomorphisms of Lie groups are studied by making use of the Lie algebra. The last chapter is concerned with the theory of compact groups, culminating in Peter-Weyl's theorem on the existence of representations. Given a compact group, it is shown how one can construct algebraically the corresponding Lie group with complex parameters which appears in the form of a certain algebraic variety (associated algebraic group). This construction is intimately related to the proof of the generalization given by Tannaka of Pontrjagin's duality theorem for Abelian groups. The continued importance of Lie groups in mathematics and theoretical physics make this an indispensable volume for researchers in both fields.

- Mathematical Methods of Statistics (PMS-9), Volume 9
In this classic of statistical mathematical theory, Harald Cramér joins the two major lines of development in the field: while British and American statisticians were developing the science of statistical inference, French and Russian probabilitists transformed the classical calculus of probability into a rigorous and pure mathematical theory. The result of Cramér's work is a masterly exposition of the mathematical methods of modern statistics that set the standard that others have since sought to follow. For anyone with a working knowledge of undergraduate mathematics the book is self contained. The first part is an introduction to the fundamental concept of a distribution and of integration with respect to a distribution. The second part contains the general theory of random variables and probability distributions while the third is devoted to the theory of sampling, statistical estimation, and tests of significance.

- The Classical Groups: Their Invariants and Representations (PMS-1)
In this renowned volume, Hermann Weyl discusses the symmetric, full linear, orthogonal, and symplectic groups and determines their different invariants and representations. Using basic concepts from algebra, he examines the various properties of the groups. Analysis and topology are used wherever appropriate. The book also covers topics such as matrix algebras, semigroups, commutators, and spinors, which are of great importance in understanding the group-theoretic structure of quantum mechanics. Hermann Weyl was among the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century. He made fundamental contributions to most branches of mathematics, but he is best remembered as one of the major developers of group theory, a powerful formal method for analyzing abstract and physical systems in which symmetry is present. In The Classical Groups, his most important book, Weyl provided a detailed introduction to the development of group theory, and he did it in a way that motivated and entertained his readers. Departing from most theoretical mathematics books of the time, he introduced historical events and people as well as theorems and proofs. One learned not only about the theory of invariants but also when and where they were originated, and by whom. He once said of his writing, "My work always tried to unite the truth with the beautiful, but when I had to choose one or the other, I usually chose the beautiful." Weyl believed in the overall unity of mathematics and that it should be integrated into other fields. He had serious interest in modern physics, especially quantum mechanics, a field to which The Classical Groups has proved important, as it has to quantum chemistry and other fields. Among the five books Weyl published with Princeton, Algebraic Theory of Numbers inaugurated the Annals of Mathematics Studies book series, a crucial and enduring foundation of Princeton's mathematics list and the most distinguished book series in mathematics.

- The Topology of Fibre Bundles. (PMS-14), Volume 14
Fibre bundles, now an integral part of differential geometry, are also of great importance in modern physics--such as in gauge theory. This book, a succinct introduction to the subject by renown mathematician Norman Steenrod, was the first to present the subject systematically. It begins with a general introduction to bundles, including such topics as differentiable manifolds and covering spaces. The author then provides brief surveys of advanced topics, such as homotopy theory and cohomology theory, before using them to study further properties of fibre bundles. The result is a classic and timeless work of great utility that will appeal to serious mathematicians and theoretical physicists alike.

- Homological Algebra (PMS-19), Volume 19
When this book was written, methods of algebraic topology had caused revolutions in the world of pure algebra. To clarify the advances that had been made, Cartan and Eilenberg tried to unify the fields and to construct the framework of a fully fledged theory. The invasion of algebra had occurred on three fronts through the construction of cohomology theories for groups, Lie algebras, and associative algebras. This book presents a single homology (and also cohomology) theory that embodies all three; a large number of results is thus established in a general framework. Subsequently, each of the three theories is singled out by a suitable specialization, and its specific properties are studied. The starting point is the notion of a module over a ring. The primary operations are the tensor product of two modules and the groups of all homomorphisms of one module into another. From these, "higher order" derived of operations are obtained, which enjoy all the properties usually attributed to homology theories. This leads in a natural way to the study of "functors" and of their "derived functors." This mathematical masterpiece will appeal to all mathematicians working in algebraic topology.

- Convex Analysis: (PMS-28)
Available for the first time in paperback, R. Tyrrell Rockafellar's classic study presents readers with a coherent branch of nonlinear mathematical analysis that is especially suited to the study of optimization problems. Rockafellar's theory differs from classical analysis in that differentiability assumptions are replaced by convexity assumptions. The topics treated in this volume include: systems of inequalities, the minimum or maximum of a convex function over a convex set, Lagrange multipliers, minimax theorems and duality, as well as basic results about the structure of convex sets and the continuity and differentiability of convex functions and saddle- functions. This book has firmly established a new and vital area not only for pure mathematics but also for applications to economics and engineering. A sound knowledge of linear algebra and introductory real analysis should provide readers with sufficient background for this book. There is also a guide for the reader who may be using the book as an introduction, indicating which parts are essential and which may be skipped on a first reading.

- Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions (PMS-30), Volume 30
Singular integrals are among the most interesting and important objects of study in analysis, one of the three main branches of mathematics. They deal with real and complex numbers and their functions. In this book, Princeton professor Elias Stein, a leading mathematical innovator as well as a gifted expositor, produced what has been called the most influential mathematics text in the last thirty-five years. One reason for its success as a text is its almost legendary presentation: Stein takes arcane material, previously understood only by specialists, and makes it accessible even to beginning graduate students. Readers have reflected that when you read this book, not only do you see that the greats of the past have done exciting work, but you also feel inspired that you can master the subject and contribute to it yourself. Singular integrals were known to only a few specialists when Stein's book was first published. Over time, however, the book has inspired a whole generation of researchers to apply its methods to a broad range of problems in many disciplines, including engineering, biology, and finance. Stein has received numerous awards for his research, including the Wolf Prize of Israel, the Steele Prize, and the National Medal of Science. He has published eight books with Princeton, including Real Analysis in 2005.

- Introduction to Fourier Analysis on Euclidean Spaces (PMS-32), Volume 32
The authors present a unified treatment of basic topics that arise in Fourier analysis. Their intention is to illustrate the role played by the structure of Euclidean spaces, particularly the action of translations, dilatations, and rotations, and to motivate the study of harmonic analysis on more general spaces having an analogous structure, e.g., symmetric spaces.

- Representation Theory of Semisimple Groups: An Overview Based on Examples (PMS-36)
In this classic work, Anthony W. Knapp offers a survey of representation theory of semisimple Lie groups in a way that reflects the spirit of the subject and corresponds to the natural learning process. This book is a model of exposition and an invaluable resource for both graduate students and researchers. Although theorems are always stated precisely, many illustrative examples or classes of examples are given. To support this unique approach, the author includes for the reader a useful 300-item bibliography and an extensive section of notes.

- Introduction to Mathematical Logic (PMS-13), Volume 13
Logic is sometimes called the foundation of mathematics: the logician studies the kinds of reasoning used in the individual steps of a proof. Alonzo Church was a pioneer in the field of mathematical logic, whose contributions to number theory and the theories of algorithms and computability laid the theoretical foundations of computer science. His first Princeton book, The Calculi of Lambda-Conversion (1941), established an invaluable tool that computer scientists still use today. Even beyond the accomplishment of that book, however, his second Princeton book, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, defined its subject for a generation. Originally published in Princeton's Annals of Mathematics Studies series, this book was revised in 1956 and reprinted a third time, in 1996, in the Princeton Landmarks in Mathematics series. Although new results in mathematical logic have been developed and other textbooks have been published, it remains, sixty years later, a basic source for understanding formal logic. Church was one of the principal founders of the Association for Symbolic Logic; he founded the Journal of Symbolic Logic in 1936 and remained an editor until 1979 At his death in 1995, Church was still regarded as the greatest mathematical logician in the world.

- Harmonic Analysis (PMS-43), Volume 43: Real-Variable Methods, Orthogonality, and Oscillatory Integrals. (PMS-43)
This book contains an exposition of some of the main developments of the last twenty years in the following areas of harmonic analysis: singular integral and pseudo-differential operators, the theory of Hardy spaces, L\sup\ estimates involving oscillatory integrals and Fourier integral operators, relations of curvature to maximal inequalities, and connections with analysis on the Heisenberg group.

- Three-Dimensional Geometry and Topology, Volume 1: (PMS-35)
This book develops some of the extraordinary richness, beauty, and power of geometry in two and three dimensions, and the strong connection of geometry with topology. Hyperbolic geometry is the star. A strong effort has been made to convey not just denatured formal reasoning (definitions, theorems, and proofs), but a living feeling for the subject. There are many figures, examples, and exercises of varying difficulty. This book was the origin of a grand scheme developed by Thurston that is now coming to fruition. In the 1920s and 1930s the mathematics of two-dimensional spaces was formalized. It was Thurston's goal to do the same for three-dimensional spaces. To do this, he had to establish the strong connection of geometry to topology--the study of qualitative questions about geometrical structures. The author created a new set of concepts, and the expression "Thurston-type geometry" has become a commonplace. Three-Dimensional Geometry and Topology had its origins in the form of notes for a graduate course the author taught at Princeton University between 1978 and 1980. Thurston shared his notes, duplicating and sending them to whoever requested them. Eventually, the mailing list grew to more than one thousand names. The book is the culmination of two decades of research and has become the most important and influential text in the field. Its content also provided the methods needed to solve one of mathematics' oldest unsolved problems--the Poincaré Conjecture. In 2005 Thurston won the first AMS Book Prize, for Three-dimensional Geometry and Topology. The prize recognizes an outstanding research book that makes a seminal contribution to the research literature. Thurston received the Fields Medal, the mathematical equivalent of the Nobel Prize, in 1982 for the depth and originality of his contributions to mathematics. In 1979 he was awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award, which recognizes an outstanding young researcher in any field of science or engineering supported by the National Science Foundation.

- Abelian Varieties with Complex Multiplication and Modular Functions: (PMS-46)
Reciprocity laws of various kinds play a central role in number theory. In the easiest case, one obtains a transparent formulation by means of roots of unity, which are special values of exponential functions. A similar theory can be developed for special values of elliptic or elliptic modular functions, and is called complex multiplication of such functions. In 1900 Hilbert proposed the generalization of these as the twelfth of his famous problems. In this book, Goro Shimura provides the most comprehensive generalizations of this type by stating several reciprocity laws in terms of abelian varieties, theta functions, and modular functions of several variables, including Siegel modular functions. This subject is closely connected with the zeta function of an abelian variety, which is also covered as a main theme in the book. The third topic explored by Shimura is the various algebraic relations among the periods of abelian integrals. The investigation of such algebraicity is relatively new, but has attracted the interest of increasingly many researchers. Many of the topics discussed in this book have not been covered before. In particular, this is the first book in which the topics of various algebraic relations among the periods of abelian integrals, as well as the special values of theta and Siegel modular functions, are treated extensively.

- Real Submanifolds in Complex Space and Their Mappings (PMS-47)
This book presents many of the main developments of the past two decades in the study of real submanifolds in complex space, providing crucial background material for researchers and advanced graduate students. The techniques in this area borrow from real and complex analysis and partial differential equations, as well as from differential, algebraic, and analytical geometry. In turn, these latter areas have been enriched over the years by the study of problems in several complex variables addressed here. The authors, M. Salah Baouendi, Peter Ebenfelt, and Linda Preiss Rothschild, include extensive preliminary material to make the book accessible to nonspecialists. One of the most important topics that the authors address here is the holomorphic extension of functions and mappings that satisfy the tangential Cauchy-Riemann equations on real submanifolds. They present the main results in this area with a novel and self-contained approach. The book also devotes considerable attention to the study of holomorphic mappings between real submanifolds, and proves finite determination of such mappings by their jets under some optimal assumptions. The authors also give a thorough comparison of the various nondegeneracy conditions for manifolds and mappings and present new geometric interpretations of these conditions. Throughout the book, Cauchy-Riemann vector fields and their orbits play a central role and are presented in a setting that is both general and elementary.

- Elliptic Partial Differential Equations and Quasiconformal Mappings in the Plane (PMS-48)
This book explores the most recent developments in the theory of planar quasiconformal mappings with a particular focus on the interactions with partial differential equations and nonlinear analysis. It gives a thorough and modern approach to the classical theory and presents important and compelling applications across a spectrum of mathematics: dynamical systems, singular integral operators, inverse problems, the geometry of mappings, and the calculus of variations. It also gives an account of recent advances in harmonic analysis and their applications in the geometric theory of mappings. The book explains that the existence, regularity, and singular set structures for second-order divergence-type equations--the most important class of PDEs in applications--are determined by the mathematics underpinning the geometry, structure, and dimension of fractal sets; moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces; and conformal dynamical systems. These topics are inextricably linked by the theory of quasiconformal mappings. Further, the interplay between them allows the authors to extend classical results to more general settings for wider applicability, providing new and often optimal answers to questions of existence, regularity, and geometric properties of solutions to nonlinear systems in both elliptic and degenerate elliptic settings.

- A Primer on Mapping Class Groups (PMS-49)
The study of the mapping class group Mod(S) is a classical topic that is experiencing a renaissance. It lies at the juncture of geometry, topology, and group theory. This book explains as many important theorems, examples, and techniques as possible, quickly and directly, while at the same time giving full details and keeping the text nearly self-contained. The book is suitable for graduate students. A Primer on Mapping Class Groups begins by explaining the main group-theoretical properties of Mod(S), from finite generation by Dehn twists and low-dimensional homology to the Dehn-Nielsen-Baer theorem. Along the way, central objects and tools are introduced, such as the Birman exact sequence, the complex of curves, the braid group, the symplectic representation, and the Torelli group. The book then introduces Teichmüller space and its geometry, and uses the action of Mod(S) on it to prove the Nielsen-Thurston classification of surface homeomorphisms. Topics include the topology of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, the connection with surface bundles, pseudo-Anosov theory, and Thurston's approach to the classification.

- Advances in Analysis: The Legacy of Elias M. Stein (PMS-50)
Princeton University's Elias Stein was the first mathematician to see the profound interconnections that tie classical Fourier analysis to several complex variables and representation theory. His fundamental contributions include the Kunze-Stein phenomenon, the construction of new representations, the Stein interpolation theorem, the idea of a restriction theorem for the Fourier transform, and the theory of Hp Spaces in several variables. Through his great discoveries, through books that have set the highest standard for mathematical exposition, and through his influence on his many collaborators and students, Stein has changed mathematics. Drawing inspiration from Stein’s contributions to harmonic analysis and related topics, this volume gathers papers from internationally renowned mathematicians, many of whom have been Stein’s students. The book also includes expository papers on Stein’s work and its influence. The contributors are Jean Bourgain, Luis Caffarelli, Michael Christ, Guy David, Charles Fefferman, Alexandru D. Ionescu, David Jerison, Carlos Kenig, Sergiu Klainerman, Loredana Lanzani, Sanghyuk Lee, Lionel Levine, Akos Magyar, Detlef Müller, Camil Muscalu, Alexander Nagel, D. H. Phong, Malabika Pramanik, Andrew S. Raich, Fulvio Ricci, Keith M. Rogers, Andreas Seeger, Scott Sheffield, Luis Silvestre, Christopher D. Sogge, Jacob Sturm, Terence Tao, Christoph Thiele, Stephen Wainger, and Steven Zelditch.

- Frontiers in Complex Dynamics: In Celebration of John Milnor's 80th Birthday (PMS-51)
John Milnor, best known for his work in differential topology, K-theory, and dynamical systems, is one of only three mathematicians to have won the Fields medal, the Abel prize, and the Wolf prize, and is the only one to have received all three of the Leroy P. Steele prizes. In honor of his eightieth birthday, this book gathers together surveys and papers inspired by Milnor's work, from distinguished experts examining not only holomorphic dynamics in one and several variables, but also differential geometry, entropy theory, and combinatorial group theory. The book contains the last paper written by William Thurston, as well as a short paper by John Milnor himself. Introductory sections put the papers in mathematical and historical perspective, color figures are included, and an index facilitates browsing. This collection will be useful to students and researchers for decades to come. The contributors are Marco Abate, Marco Arizzi, Alexander Blokh, Thierry Bousch, Xavier Buff, Serge Cantat, Tao Chen, Robert Devaney, Alexandre Dezotti, Tien-Cuong Dinh, Romain Dujardin, Hugo García-Compeán, William Goldman, Rotislav Grigorchuk, John Hubbard, Yunping Jiang, Linda Keen, Jan Kiwi, Genadi Levin, Daniel Meyer, John Milnor, Carlos Moreira, Vincente Muñoz, Viet-Anh Nguyên, Lex Oversteegen, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, Ross Ptacek, Jasmin Raissy, Pascale Roesch, Roberto Santos-Silva, Dierk Schleicher, Nessim Sibony, Daniel Smania, Tan Lei, William Thurston, Vladlen Timorin, Sebastian van Strien, and Alberto Verjovsky.

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