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Summer 2012 Precalculus Section 1.4 Lecture Notes

Summer 2012 Precalculus Section 1.4 Lecture Notes

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Section 1.4
To find a Formula for a Linear Function
we findvalues for the slope,
m
, and the vertical intercept,
b
 in the formula
y = b + mx.
Alternative Forms for the Equation of a Line
The
Slope-Intercept
Form
:
y =
m
x +
b
The
Point-Slope
Form:
 
y
 – 
 
y
o
=
m
(x
 – 
 
x
o
)
 
The
Standard
Form:
A
x +
B
y +
C
= 0
 
Example 1:
Find formula for the linear function that hasslope
4 and x-intercept 7.
We have slope, m = − 4, and so
 y = b + mx implies that y = b
 – 
4x.Since the x-intercept is 7, the line passes through (7 , 0).By substitution, we have 0 = b
 – 
4(7).28 = b.Therefore,
 
y = 28
 – 
4x.
 Example 2: P = h(t) gives the size of a population thatbegins with 12000 members and grows by 225 memberseach year. Find the formula for the linear function.The starting value is b = 12000, and the growth rate is m= 225, and so P = h(t) = 12000 + 225t.
 
Solutions to Selected Problems:Example 1: page 33, exercise 12. j(s) = s
 
1
+ 7 is not a linear function since the power of s is not 1.Example 2: page 33, exercise 13.C(r) = 2
r can be written as C(r) =
 
0 + 2
r, and so C(r) is linearwith b = 0 and m = 2
.Example 3: page 33, exercise 15.
 f 
(x) =
 
m
2
x + n
2
is linear with slope = m
2
and vertical intercept n
2
.
Example 4:
Page 33, exercise 22. We have
 f 
(0.3) = 0.8 and
 f 
(0.8) = −0.4.
 
Slope = m =
.4.2 5.02.15.08.04.0 3.08.0 )3.0()8.0(
 f  x f 
 y = b + mx implies that y =
 f 
(x) = b + 2.4x.
 f 
(
 
0.3) = b + 2.4(0.3)0.8 = b
 – 
0.721.52 = bTherefore, y = 1.52 + 2.4x. Example 5: Page 33, exercise 25.p
 
0.5 0.75 1.00q = f(p) 1500 1000 500Since the function is linear, we can pick any 2 points to find itsformula: q = b + mp.Slope = m =
200025.05005.075.0 15001000
 pq
 Next, we substitute a point into q = b
2000p to find b, the q-intercept.We use the point (1 , 500).500 = b
 – 
2000(1)2500 = b.Therefore, q = 2500
 – 
2000p.
 
 
Example 6: Page 34, exercise 36.n
 
100 125 150 175C(n) 11000 11125 11250 11375
From the table, for each decrease of 25 units in n, C(n) goes down by125 units.
n 0 25 50 75
100 125 150 175
C(n) 10500 10625 10750 10875
11000 11125 11250 11375
Therefore, C(0) = 10500. This means that the cost of producing zerounits of good is $10500; that is, the fixed costs, before any goods areproduced, are $10500.
Example 7: Page 34, exercise 40.
(a) A table of all possible combinations of sesame and poppy seedrolls is shown below.s = number of sesame rolls and p = the number of poppy seedrolls.s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12p 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0(b) The sum of s and p is 12. So, we can write s + p = 12.Therefore,
p = 12
 – 
s.Example 8: Page 35, exercise 45.Both P and Q lie on the curve y = x
2
+ 1, so their coordinatesmust satisfy that equation.Q has x-coordinate 2, and so its y-coordinate: y = (2)
2
+ 1 = 5.P has y-coordinate 8, and so its x-coordinate: 8 = x
2
+ 17 = x
2
 
7
= xSo, the x-coordinate of P =
7
because we know from thegraph that x < 0.Now, we have 2 points: P = (
7
, 8) and Q = (2 , 5).

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