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C - Coal Quality- It's Influence on the Design and Operation of Modern Coal-Fired Ships - 1982 - Lloyd's Register of Shipping, U.K.

C - Coal Quality- It's Influence on the Design and Operation of Modern Coal-Fired Ships - 1982 - Lloyd's Register of Shipping, U.K.

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Published by CoalFiredShipTech
by Paul Holbrook - Lloyd's Register of Shipping, U.K.

From the Third International Coal-Fired Ships Conference - London, UK - November 17-18, 1982

Discussion of shipbuilding techniques, coal and ash handling technology and the future of coal as a fuel for modern ships.
by Paul Holbrook - Lloyd's Register of Shipping, U.K.

From the Third International Coal-Fired Ships Conference - London, UK - November 17-18, 1982

Discussion of shipbuilding techniques, coal and ash handling technology and the future of coal as a fuel for modern ships.

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Published by: CoalFiredShipTech on Aug 02, 2012
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05/13/2014

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COALQUALITY-ITSINFLUENCEONTHEDESIGN
&
OPERATIONOFMODERNCOAL-FIREDSHIPS.
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I
PaulHolbrook
I
Lloyd'sRegisterofShipping,U.
K.
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Introduction
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I
THE
FIRSTofthenewgenerationofcoal-firedshipshasnowenteredserviceontheAustraliancoastcarryingbauxitefromWeipatoGladstone.Theinitialfeedbackofinformationfromtheships'trialsappearstosupportthedecisionbyLloyd'sRegisterofShippingtoassigntheoperationalclassnotationUMS(UnattendedMachinerySpaces).
I
I
Theseships,however,willbeemployedonadedicatedrouteandarethusabletobunkeraconsistentgradeandqualityofcoal.Itisfortunatethatmarineengineersarefamiliarwithmostofthecriticalcomponentsofcoal-firedpowerplantandtheabilityofthecrewstooperatethemechanicalsystemsisnotindoubt.Itshould,however,berealisedthattheabilitytooperatethevesselwithanunattendedmachineryspaceandsophisticatedcombustioncontrolsystemdoesrequireadjustmentofcom-bustioncontrolsetpointparameterstomeeteachprevailingcondition.
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Itisanticipatedtherefore,that,whereavesselisintendedtotradeworldwideandacceptavarietyofcoalasbunkers,ahigherdegreeofoperatorskillwillberequiredparticularlyintheareasofhandlingandcombustionofcoal,owingtothenaturalindigenousqualityvariationswhichoccur.
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III
Inadditiontotheimportantconsiderationofthecontrolsurveillanceandalarmsystemstoachieveoperationalefficiency,indigenouscoalqualityvariationsalsoimposemachinerydesignrestraints.Thecontinuedtechnologicaladvancesinboilerandstokerdesignandrelatedimprove-mentsinbulkcoalandashhandlingequipmentonland,allowthemarinedesignengineerseveralalternativestoachievethehighenvironmentalstandardsdemandedofmodernships.Coincidentally,thislatteraspectwastheprimaryreasonwhycoalasamarinefuelwasdroppedinfavourofoilduringthelate1940sandearly1950s.
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Itisalsorealisedthattheuseofcoalasamarinefueldoespresentotherfundamentaloperationalandtechnicalproblemswhichmaybebroadlycategorisedasfollows:-
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DayOne-PaperNo.2
 
1.Worldwidecoalbunkerlogistics.
2.
3.
Higherinvestmentcosts.Cargopayloadpenaltiesduetothemuchlargercoalbunkersandmachineryspacerequirements.Lowerthermalefficiencies..Whilstrecognisingthecollectiveimportanceoftheabove,theyembracepolitical,economicandtechnicalsubjectsofsuchadiversenaturethatitwouldbeimpossibletodealwithalloftheminonepaper.Therefore,thispaperdiscussestheeffectsoftheindigenouscoalqualityvariationsonthecombustionofthefuelandthedesignofthemachinery.ClassificationofcoalsaccordingtorankCoalqualityvariationsoccurnaturallybetweenareasasaresultofdifferingpressureandtemperatureeffectsduringformation.TheSeyler'scoalchartreproducedinFigure2overleafgivesavisualappreciationofthewiderangeincoalcharacteristics.Variousauthoritieshavedevelopeddifferentsystemsforclassifyingcoals.Forthepurposesofthispaper,itisconvenienttousetheUnitedKingdom,NationalCoalBoard'sCoalRankCodeNumberClassification(Ref.No.1)whichwasdevisedsomeyearsagoasasimplemeansofclassi-fyingcoals.Theclassificationisbasedon.thevolatilecontentsexpressedonad.m.m.f.(drymineralmatter-free)basisandthecakingpropertiesofthecleancoals(definedaslessthan10percentASH).
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Usingthevolatilemattercriterionaloneadivisionintothefollowinggroupisobtained:-
VOLATILEMATTERRANKCODENUMBER
AnthracitesUptoandincluding9%9.1-19.5%19.6-32%Over32%100200300
*
Low-volatilesteamcoals..MediumvolatilecoalsHighvolatilecoalsForcoalrankNos100-300,i.e.incoalsofvolatilematterupto32percent,thereisacloserelationshipbetweenvolatilemattercontentandcakingproperties.Asthevolatilematterincreasesthecakingpropertyincreases.
*
Certaincoalshavebeenaffectedbyheatfromnearbyigneousintrusions,withtheresultthattheircakingpropertiesaregenerallysubnormalcomparedwithothercoalsofsimilarvolatilecontent.Theseaffectedcoalsaredistinguishedbytheuseofsub-groups.Inthefourthgroup,i.e.withvolatilematterofgreaterthan32percent,thereisawiderangeofcakingpropertiesatanygivenvolatilemattercontentandsubdivisionhasbeenmadeonthebasisofcakingpower.Sixrangesofcakingpowerarerecognised:-VerystronglycakingStronglycakingMediumcakingWeaklycakingVeryweaklycaking
CODENUMBER
400
500600700800900on-cakingEachofthemainclasses400-900canbefurthersubdividedaccordingtovolatilemattercontent.[1]inthethirdfigureofthecodenumbermeansthatthevolatilemattercontentofacoalliesbetween32percentand36percentanda[2]meansthatitisover36percentAmorecomprehensivelistofmainandsubclassesisshowninTable1.Fuelqualitycriteriaformarinestoker-firedboilersThe"asreceived"moistureshouldlieideallybetween12and18percent.Lessthan12percentappearstobeverydryandthecarboninflyashlossesbecomesexcessive.Morethan18percentistoomuchmoisture.Theashcontentonan"asreceived"basisvarieswiththemoisture.Soutilisingthe"dry"basisistheonlyreliablemethod.Thedryashcontentshouldliebetween8and12percent.Verylowashcontents,andtheyfrequentlyoccurdowntolessthan5percentcauseoverheatingofthe,grate.Adryashcontentof18percentwouldbeconsideredtheupperlimitforaship'sfuel,duetotheexcessivevolumelossinbunkersandtheexcessiveamountofashtobedealtwith.Swellingindex-thisismostsatisfactoryat[1]providingthecoalisnotactuallynon-agglomerating,sincethiscausestroublewithriddlings.Ontheotherhandahighswellingindexofabove[4]canproducealightcoke.thatliftsoffthegrate.(Swellingindexasper8S1016PART121959GRAY-KINGCoketype).

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