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Social Science 3 1st Quarter Reviewer

Social Science 3 1st Quarter Reviewer

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Published by Amica Dela Cruz

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Published by: Amica Dela Cruz on Aug 04, 2012
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08/06/2012

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Amica !
Social Science 3 1
st
Quarter ReviewerSGR Definition of Terms
a.
 
Corporation
 –
an organization formed with the stategovernmental approval to act as an artificial personto carry on a businessb.
 
Raw Materials
 –
unprocessed natural product usedin manufacturec.
 
Third World Countries
 –
term originally used todistinguish those nations that neither aligned withthe west nor with the east during the cold war; leastdeveloping countriesd.
 
Tariffs
 –
tax imposed on a product when it isimported into a countrye.
 
Plunder
 –
to rob goods by force, especially in timesof warf.
 
Repression
 –
act of restraining, inhibiting orsuppressingg.
 
Unemployment
 –
describes a state of a worker whois willing but not able to find workh.
 
Destabilization
 –
to upset the stability or smoothfunctioning of; to undermine the power of agovernment or leader by subversive or terrorist actsi.
 
Junta
 –
a group of military officers ruling a country
after seizing power (after a coup d’état)
  j.
 
Hillbillies
 –
a person from the backwoods or aremote mountain area
GEOGRAPHY
a.
 
What is geography?
 
The study of earth’s landscapes, peoples,
places, environments and its featuresb.
 
Importance of geography
 
Geographic borders create natural boundaries,this leads to the diversity in culture
 
Defines customs and traditions; identitiesc.
 
Continents7: North America, South America, Europe Africa,Antarctica, Asia, Australia4: Americas, Afroeurasia, Antarctica, Australia
MAP PROJECTTIONS
 
Method of presenting the surface of a sphere orother shapes on a plane and is necessary in makingmapsa.
 
Map
 –
representation of a globe on a flat surfaceb.
 
Carl Frederick Gauss
 –
 
“Theorema Egregium”
c.
 
Theorema Egregium
 –
sphere cannot berepresented in a plane without any distortionsThree map Projections1.
 
Mercator (Gerardus Mercator)-
 
Cylindrical map projection-
 
Straight meridians and parallels withintersect at right angles-
 
Standard map projection for nauticalpurposes-
 
Able to represent lines of constant courseas straight segments-
 
Used by sea farers2.
 
Peters (Arno Peters)-
 
Equal map area-
 
Elongated and squeezed-
 
Most credible to use-
 
Represents areas accurately but it seriouslydistorts shapes3.
 
Robinson (Arthur Robinson)-
 
Meridians in this projection, gentlystretching the poles into long lines-
 
Not as accurate as Mercator’s
-
 
Least accurate
THE EARTH
’S
BIOSPHERE
3 Parts:1.
 
Lithosphere-
 
Outer solid crust part of the earth-
 
In constant motion-
 
Upper most mantle-
 
200mya ( super continent was made)
 
Pangaea - Land
 
Panthalassa
 –
water-
 
190mya (Pangaea split into two)
 
Laurasia
 –
up
 
Gondwanaland
 –
down-
 
130mya (India
 –
early countries)
 
Amica !-
 
65mya (South America, Africa)-
 
2 Theories:
 
Plate Tectonic
 
Continental Drift-
 
Continent
 –
large landmass surrounded byor nearly surrounded by water-
 
Ural Mountains
 –
used to divide Europe andAsia; not impressive; in Russia-
 
Bosporus and Dardanelles (Straits)
 –
inturkey; not an impressive division either-
 
Division: superiority, appearance, cultures,industry and agriculture
EVOLUTION OF MAN
Specially Trained Scientists:a.
 
Archaeologists
 –
learn about early people byexcavating and studying traces of earlysettlements* Archaeological dig
 –
excavated site* artifacts
 –
remains, hint at culture/civilizationb.
 
Anthropologists
 –
study culture (way of life);study artefacts and recreate a picture of 
people’s cultural behaviour
c.
 
Paleontologists
 –
study fossils; use techniquesto date ancient fossil remains and rocks _____________________________________________Chemicals > unicellular cells > multicellular cells >animals underwater > animals on land > dinosaurs >mammals > primates (3D vision, large brain, good grip)Hominid Development* Hominids
 –
First to stand upright1.
 
Ramapithecus
 –
scavengers, small family groups2.
 
Australopithecines
 –
brain the size of a modernchimp; their tools became varied and complex
 
A. Afarencis
 –
LUCY; Donald Johanson &Tom Gray; Ethiopia; most importantbecause of almost complete skeleton
 
A. Africanus - TAUNG CHILD; RaymondDart; Africa; Larger than A. Afarencis
 
A. Boisei
 –
ROBUSTUS; Mary Leakey;large teeth and thickened skull3.
 
Homo Habilis “Handy Man” –
made stone tools;skull was found near A. Boisei4.
 
Homo Erectus
 –
first to use fire; Eugene Duboisdiscovered Java Man / Pithecanthropus ErectusBranched out into two:a.
 
Homo Sapiensb.
 
Neanderthals-
 
Neander Valley, Germany-
 
Mysteriously disappeared5.
 
Homo Sapiens “Wise Man”
 6.
 
Homo Sapien Sapiens
 –
present day humans
BIG ERAS
 
Present in the early hominid were the following:-
 
Complex social relationships
 
Social cooperation
 
Group politics
 
Cared for each other; esp children
 
What differs us from them?-
 
Art, religion & language
 
Everything started with bipedalism-
 
Bipedalism > free hands > nourished brain
 
Collective Learning-
 
Storing and building up skills + knowledge =continuing cultural change-
 
Through language
 
What is so special about homo sapiens?-
 
Well-developed brain >> rational thinkingCHANGES THAT OCCURRED BY THE END OF BE 21.
 
Homo Sapiens appeared2.
 
Language developed3.
 
Habitats expanded4.
 
Technology multiplied5.
 
Wall paintings and sculptures were created
 
10,000BCE
 –
1,000BCEa.
 
domestication of plants and animals lead to thebirth of villages1.
 
Pastoralism (herding animals)
 
Amica !-
 
Sheep, goats, cattle, etc2.
 
Crop-growing-
 
Plantsb.
 
development of farming communities(Eastern North America, Mesoamerica, WestAfrica, Nile Valley, Ethiopia, etc.)c.
 
communities independently appeared
 
Farming Resultsa.
 
Population Intensification (growth)b.
 
Surplus of Food (increase in food production)^^ were AUTOCATALYTIC (transpired at thesame time)c.
 
Job Specialization
 –
because SoF; free timePALEOLITHIC (Old Stone Age)-
 
People were nomads; did not buildpermanent dwellings or settle in villages-
 
Made temporary homes in caves / tents-
 
Small groups ( 20
 –
30)-
 
Stone artifacts, cave dwellers used andlearned to control fire* Fire provided warmth and light; also usedin hunting ad in cooking food (H. Erectus)-
 
Used spoken language; enabled them toshare ideas and experiences and pass it onto their children (H. Sapiens)-
 
Tools: Stones, bones, wood (H.Habilis)Neanderthal (Homo Erectus) people develop beliefs-
 
They had rituals; carefully buried the dead-
 
Introduced concept of afterlifeCro-Magnon (Homo Sapiens) people develop art-
 
beads, necklaces, bracelets carved fromivory; small sculptures depicting animals-
 
played music (carved flute)-
 
paintings found in the walls of caves-
 
animal paintings: shows that they hadrituals and beliefs (goodluck, honor, thanks)-
 
Europe and Asia;* Altamira cave
 –
Spain* Lascaux Cave
 –
FranceEnvironment undergoes changes-
 
ICA AGE: weather & climate: colder (latestone age)-
 
weather grew warmer, glaciers melted andclimates grew hotter and drier (end of theold stone age); land/land bridges wereexposedNEOLITHIC (New Stone Age)-
 
learned to shape and polish stone morecarefully-
 
people established settlements* Jericho
 –
Middle East* Catal Huyuk
 –
Turkey (Obsidian productsfor jewelry, décor and weapons); neo basis* Ethiopia* Fertile Crescent* Domestication of plants and animals
farming
 pastoralism and farming comminities* Farming
population intensification &
food surplus (not everyone has to growfood, tend animals)
allowed for jobspecialization such as weaving & pottery)* farming appeared independently in:
o
 
Eastern North America
o
 
Mesoamerica
o
 
Andes
o
 
Fertile Crescent
o
 
New Guinea
o
 
Amazona
o
 
West Africa
o
 
Nile Valley
o
 
Ethiopia
o
 
ChinaVillagers developed special skills-
 
people first developed farming-
 
tamed/domesticated wild animals-
 
learned pottery, weave cloth and work withmetals* artisans
 –
people with skills in specializedcraft

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