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Giao an Day Them Toan 8

# Giao an Day Them Toan 8

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09/14/2012

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Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËnBuæi 1 : h»ng ®¼ng thøc

a. môc tiªu:
* Cñng cè vµ n©ng cao kiÕn thøc vÒ phÐp nh©n ®a thøc – h»ng ®¼ngthøc* TiÕp tôc rÌn luyÖn kü n¨ng gi¶i c¸c bµi to¸n vÒ phÐp nh©n ®a thøc –h»ng ®¼ng thøc* T¹o høng thó cho HS trong qu¸ tr×nh häc n©ng cao m«n to¸n
b. ho¹t ®éng d¹y häc:I. Nh¾c l¹i néi dung bµi häc:
1. Nh©n ®a thøc víi ®a thøc:A( B + C + D) = AB + AC + AD(A + B + C) (D + E) = AD + AE + BD + BE + CD + CE2.Nh÷ng h»ng ®¼ng thøc ®¸ng nhí:B×nh ph¬ng mét tæng: ( A + B)
2
= A
2
+ 2AB + B
2
(1)B×nh ph¬ng mét hiÖu: ( A - B)
2
= A
2
- 2AB + B
2
(2)HiÖu hai b×nh ph¬ng: A
2
– B
2
= (A + B)(A B) (3)
II. Bµi tËp ¸p dông:Ho¹t ®éng cña GVHo¹t ®éng cña HS1. Bµi 1:
Rót gän biÓu thøca) (x + 1) (x
2
+ 2x + 4) Thùc hiÖn phÐp nh©n råi rót gänb) (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
5
– x
4
+ x
2
– x + 1)c) (3x + 1)
2
– 2(3x + 1)(3x + 5) +(3x + 5)
2
Bµi 2:
T×m x biÕt:3(x + 2)
2
+ (2x – 1)
2
– 7(x + 3)(x -3) = 172¸p dông c¸c H.®¼ng thøc nµo ®Ógi¶iBiÕn ®æi, rót gän vÕ tr¸i
Bµi 3:
Cho x + y = a; xy = b. tÝnh gi¸ trÞc¸c biÓu thøc sau theo a vµ b:x
2
+ y
2
; x
4
+ y
4
HS ghi ®Ò, thùc hiÖn theo nhãmHS cïng GV thùc hiÖn lêi gi¶ia) (x + 1) (x
2
+ 2x + 4) =x
3
+ 2x
2
+ 4x + x
2
+ 2x + 4 = x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 6x+ 4b) (x
2
+ x + 1)(x
5
– x
4
+ x
2
– x + 1)= …= x
7
+ x
2
+ 1c) (3x + 1)
2
– 2(3x + 1)(3x + 5) +(3x + 5)
2
= [(3x + 1) – (3x + 5)]
2
= (3x + 1 –3x – 5)
2
= (- 4)
2
= 16HS ghi ®Ò bµigi¶i theo nhãm Ýt phót¸p dông c¸c H.®¼ng thøc (1), (2),(3)3(x + 2)
2
+ (2x – 1)
2
– 7(x + 3)(x -3) = 172
3(x
2
+ 4x + 4) + 4x
2
– 4x + 1 –7(x
2
– 9) = 172
….
8x = 96
x = 121

Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËn
Bµi 4:
chøng minh r»nga) (x + y)(x
3
– x
2
y + xy
2
– y
3
) = x
4
y
4
b) NÕu: (a + b)
2
= 2(a
2
+ b
2
) th×: a= b Tõ (a + b)
2
= 2(a
2
+ b
2
) suy ra®iÒu g×?c) NÕu: x + y + z = 0 vµxy + yz + zx = 0 th× x = y = z Tõ : x + y + z = 0
(x + y + z)
2
=? Tõ ®o ta cã ®iÒu g×?d) cho a + b + c = 0 vµ a
2
+ b
2
+c
2
= 2c/m: a
4
+ b
4
+ c
4
= 2HD c¸ch gi¶i t¬ng tù
Bµi 5:
So s¸nh:a) A = 1997 . 1999 vµ B = 1998
2
b)A = 4(3
2
+ 1)(3
4
+ 1)…(3
64
+ 1)vµ B = 3
128
- 1 TÝnh 4 theo 3
2
– 1?Khi ®ã A = ?¸p dông h»ng ®¼ng thøc nµo liªntiÕp ®Ó so s¸nh A vµ BHS ghi ®Ò bµi, tiÕn hµnh bµi gi¶i Ta cã x
2
+ y
2
= (x + y)
2
– 2xy = a
2
– 2bx
4
+ y
4
= (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
– 2(xy)
2
= (a
2
– 2b)
2
– 2b
2
= a
4
- 4a
2
b + 2b
2
HS ghi ®Ò, tiÕn hµnh gi¶i cïng víiGVa)VT = (x + y)(x
3
– x
2
y + xy
2
– y
3
)= x
4
– x
3
y + x
2
y
2
– xy
3
+x
3
y - x
2
y
2
+ xy
3
- y
4
= x
4
– y
4
= VP (®pcm)b) Tõ (a + b)
2
= 2(a
2
+ b
2
) suy raa
2
+ 2ab + b
2
= 2a
2
+ 2b
2

a
2
-2ab + b
2
= 0
(a – b)
2
= 0
a – b = 0
a = b(®pcm)c) Tõ : x + y + z = 0
(x + y + z)
2
= 0
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2(xy + yz + zx) =0
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 0 ( v× xy + yz +zx = 0)
x = y = zd) Tõ a + b + c = 0
(a + b + c )
2
= 0
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2(ab + bc + ca) =0
ab + bc + ca = -1 (1) Ta l¹i cã:(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)
2
= a
4
+ b
4
+ c
4
+2( a
2
b
2
+ b
2
c
2
+ c
2
a
2
) = 4 (2) Tõ (1)
(ab + bc + ca)
2
= 1
a
2
b
2
+ b
2
c
2
+ c
2
a
2
= 1 (3) Tõ (2) vµ (3) suy ra a
4
+ b
4
+ c
4
=2a) A = 1997 . 1999 = (1998 – 1)(1998 + 1)= 1998
2
– 1 < 1998
2

A < Bb) V× 4 =
2
312
nªnA = 4(3
2
+ 1)(3
4
+ 1)(3
8
+ 1)…(3
64
2

Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËn
Bµi 6:
a) Cho a = 11…1( co n ch÷ sè 1)b = 100…05( cã n – 1 ch÷ sè 0)Cmr: ab + 1 lµ sè chÝnh ph¬ngb) Cho U
n
= 11…155…5 (cã n ch÷sè 1 vµ n ch÷ sè 5)Cmr: U
n
+ 1 lµ sè chÝnh ph¬ng+ 1)=
2
312
(3
2
+ 1)(3
4
+ 1)(3
8
+ 1)…(3
64
+ 1)=
12
(3
4
- 1) (3
4
+ 1)(3
8
+ 1)…(3
64
+1)=
12
(3
8
- 1)(3
8
+ 1)…(3
64
+ 1)=
12
(3
16
- 1)(3
16
+ 1)(3
32
+ 1)(3
64
+1)=
12
(3
32
- 1)(3
32
+ 1)(3
64
+ 1)=
12
(3
64
- 1)(3
64
+ 1) =
12
(3
128
- 1) =
12
BVËy: A < B Ta cã: b = 10
n
+ 5 = 9….9 + 6= 9(1…1) + 6 = 9a + 6
ab + 1 = a(9a + 6) + 1 = 9a
2
+6a +1= (3a + 1)
2
lµ mét sè chÝnh ph¬ng Ta viÕt:== 11…1.10
n
+ 5. 11…1§Æt: a = 11…1 th× 9a + 1 = 10
n
Do ®ã : U
n
+ 1 = 9a
2
+ 6a +1 =(3a+ 1)
2

III. Bµi tËp vÒ nhµ:
Bµi 1:cho x + y = 3. TÝnh gi¸ trÞ biÓu thøc: x
2
+ y
2
+ 2xy – 4x – 4y + 1Bµi 2:Chøng minh r»ng: x
4
+ y
4
+ (x + y)
4
= 2(x
2
+ xy + y
2
)
2
Bµi 3:Cho (a + b + c)
2
= 3(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
). Cmr: a = b = c3
U
n
=n sè 1n sè 5

+n 0n 1n sè 5