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Giao an Day Them Toan 8Ratings: (0)|Views: 162|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/105895529/Giao-an-Day-Them-Toan-8

09/14/2012

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Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËnBuæi 1 : h»ng ®¼ng thøc

a. môc tiªu:

* Cñng cè vµ n©ng cao kiÕn thøc vÒ phÐp nh©n ®a thøc – h»ng ®¼ngthøc* TiÕp tôc rÌn luyÖn kü n¨ng gi¶i c¸c bµi to¸n vÒ phÐp nh©n ®a thøc –h»ng ®¼ng thøc* T¹o høng thó cho HS trong qu¸ tr×nh häc n©ng cao m«n to¸n

b. ho¹t ®éng d¹y häc:I. Nh¾c l¹i néi dung bµi häc:

1. Nh©n ®a thøc víi ®a thøc:A( B + C + D) = AB + AC + AD(A + B + C) (D + E) = AD + AE + BD + BE + CD + CE2.Nh÷ng h»ng ®¼ng thøc ®¸ng nhí:B×nh ph¬ng mét tæng: ( A + B)

2

= A

2

+ 2AB + B

2

(1)B×nh ph¬ng mét hiÖu: ( A - B)

2

= A

2

- 2AB + B

2

(2)HiÖu hai b×nh ph¬ng: A

2

– B

2

= (A + B)(A – B) (3)

II. Bµi tËp ¸p dông:Ho¹t ®éng cña GVHo¹t ®éng cña HS1. Bµi 1:

Rót gän biÓu thøca) (x + 1) (x

2

+ 2x + 4) Thùc hiÖn phÐp nh©n råi rót gänb) (x

2

+ x + 1)(x

5

– x

4

+ x

2

– x + 1)c) (3x + 1)

2

– 2(3x + 1)(3x + 5) +(3x + 5)

2

Bµi 2:

T×m x biÕt:3(x + 2)

2

+ (2x – 1)

2

– 7(x + 3)(x -3) = 172¸p dông c¸c H.®¼ng thøc nµo ®Ógi¶iBiÕn ®æi, rót gän vÕ tr¸i

Bµi 3:

Cho x + y = a; xy = b. tÝnh gi¸ trÞc¸c biÓu thøc sau theo a vµ b:x

2

+ y

2

; x

4

+ y

4

HS ghi ®Ò, thùc hiÖn theo nhãmHS cïng GV thùc hiÖn lêi gi¶ia) (x + 1) (x

2

+ 2x + 4) =x

3

+ 2x

2

+ 4x + x

2

+ 2x + 4 = x

3

+ 3x

2

+ 6x+ 4b) (x

2

+ x + 1)(x

5

– x

4

+ x

2

– x + 1)= …= x

7

+ x

2

+ 1c) (3x + 1)

2

– 2(3x + 1)(3x + 5) +(3x + 5)

2

= [(3x + 1) – (3x + 5)]

2

= (3x + 1 –3x – 5)

2

= (- 4)

2

= 16HS ghi ®Ò bµigi¶i theo nhãm Ýt phót¸p dông c¸c H.®¼ng thøc (1), (2),(3)3(x + 2)

2

+ (2x – 1)

2

– 7(x + 3)(x -3) = 172

⇔

3(x

2

+ 4x + 4) + 4x

2

– 4x + 1 –7(x

2

– 9) = 172

⇔

….

⇔

8x = 96

⇔

x = 121

Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËn

Bµi 4:

chøng minh r»nga) (x + y)(x

3

– x

2

y + xy

2

– y

3

) = x

4

–y

4

b) NÕu: (a + b)

2

= 2(a

2

+ b

2

) th×: a= b Tõ (a + b)

2

= 2(a

2

+ b

2

) suy ra®iÒu g×?c) NÕu: x + y + z = 0 vµxy + yz + zx = 0 th× x = y = z Tõ : x + y + z = 0

⇒

(x + y + z)

2

=? Tõ ®o ta cã ®iÒu g×?d) cho a + b + c = 0 vµ a

2

+ b

2

+c

2

= 2c/m: a

4

+ b

4

+ c

4

= 2HD c¸ch gi¶i t¬ng tù

Bµi 5:

So s¸nh:a) A = 1997 . 1999 vµ B = 1998

2

b)A = 4(3

2

+ 1)(3

4

+ 1)…(3

64

+ 1)vµ B = 3

128

- 1 TÝnh 4 theo 3

2

– 1?Khi ®ã A = ?¸p dông h»ng ®¼ng thøc nµo liªntiÕp ®Ó so s¸nh A vµ BHS ghi ®Ò bµi, tiÕn hµnh bµi gi¶i Ta cã x

2

+ y

2

= (x + y)

2

– 2xy = a

2

– 2bx

4

+ y

4

= (x

2

+ y

2

)

2

– 2(xy)

2

= (a

2

– 2b)

2

– 2b

2

= a

4

- 4a

2

b + 2b

2

HS ghi ®Ò, tiÕn hµnh gi¶i cïng víiGVa)VT = (x + y)(x

3

– x

2

y + xy

2

– y

3

)= x

4

– x

3

y + x

2

y

2

– xy

3

+x

3

y - x

2

y

2

+ xy

3

- y

4

= x

4

– y

4

= VP (®pcm)b) Tõ (a + b)

2

= 2(a

2

+ b

2

) suy raa

2

+ 2ab + b

2

= 2a

2

+ 2b

2

⇒

a

2

-2ab + b

2

= 0

⇒

(a – b)

2

= 0

⇒

a – b = 0

⇒

a = b(®pcm)c) Tõ : x + y + z = 0

⇒

(x + y + z)

2

= 0

⇒

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

+ 2(xy + yz + zx) =0

⇒

x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

= 0 ( v× xy + yz +zx = 0)

⇒

x = y = zd) Tõ a + b + c = 0

⇒

(a + b + c )

2

= 0

⇒

a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

+ 2(ab + bc + ca) =0

⇒

ab + bc + ca = -1 (1) Ta l¹i cã:(a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

)

2

= a

4

+ b

4

+ c

4

+2( a

2

b

2

+ b

2

c

2

+ c

2

a

2

) = 4 (2) Tõ (1)

⇒

(ab + bc + ca)

2

= 1

⇒

a

2

b

2

+ b

2

c

2

+ c

2

a

2

= 1 (3) Tõ (2) vµ (3) suy ra a

4

+ b

4

+ c

4

=2a) A = 1997 . 1999 = (1998 – 1)(1998 + 1)= 1998

2

– 1 < 1998

2

⇒

A < Bb) V× 4 =

2

312

−

nªnA = 4(3

2

+ 1)(3

4

+ 1)(3

8

+ 1)…(3

64

2

Gi¸o ¸n BDHSG to¸n 8 - GV: NguyÔn TiÕn ThuËn

Bµi 6:

a) Cho a = 11…1( co n ch÷ sè 1)b = 100…05( cã n – 1 ch÷ sè 0)Cmr: ab + 1 lµ sè chÝnh ph¬ngb) Cho U

n

= 11…155…5 (cã n ch÷sè 1 vµ n ch÷ sè 5)Cmr: U

n

+ 1 lµ sè chÝnh ph¬ng+ 1)=

2

312

−

(3

2

+ 1)(3

4

+ 1)(3

8

+ 1)…(3

64

+ 1)=

12

(3

4

- 1) (3

4

+ 1)(3

8

+ 1)…(3

64

+1)=

12

(3

8

- 1)(3

8

+ 1)…(3

64

+ 1)=

12

(3

16

- 1)(3

16

+ 1)(3

32

+ 1)(3

64

+1)=

12

(3

32

- 1)(3

32

+ 1)(3

64

+ 1)=

12

(3

64

- 1)(3

64

+ 1) =

12

(3

128

- 1) =

12

BVËy: A < B Ta cã: b = 10

n

+ 5 = 9….9 + 6= 9(1…1) + 6 = 9a + 6

⇒

ab + 1 = a(9a + 6) + 1 = 9a

2

+6a +1= (3a + 1)

2

lµ mét sè chÝnh ph¬ng Ta viÕt:== 11…1.10

n

+ 5. 11…1§Æt: a = 11…1 th× 9a + 1 = 10

n

Do ®ã : U

n

+ 1 = 9a

2

+ 6a +1 =(3a+ 1)

2

III. Bµi tËp vÒ nhµ:

Bµi 1:cho x + y = 3. TÝnh gi¸ trÞ biÓu thøc: x

2

+ y

2

+ 2xy – 4x – 4y + 1Bµi 2:Chøng minh r»ng: x

4

+ y

4

+ (x + y)

4

= 2(x

2

+ xy + y

2

)

2

Bµi 3:Cho (a + b + c)

2

= 3(a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

). Cmr: a = b = c3

U

n

=n sè 1n sè 5

+n sè 0n sè 1n sè 5

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