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The Rapid Electrical Formation of Stone Spherules, The Scalability of the Results, And the Similarities of the Internal and External Structures of the Spheres With Naturally Occurring Concretions

The Rapid Electrical Formation of Stone Spherules, The Scalability of the Results, And the Similarities of the Internal and External Structures of the Spheres With Naturally Occurring Concretions

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Study on The Rapid Electrical Formation of Stone Spherules, the Scalability of the Results, and the Similarities of the Internal and External Structures of the Spheres with Naturally Occurring Concretions. Experimental results of plasma discharges mimic formations observed in nature.
Study on The Rapid Electrical Formation of Stone Spherules, the Scalability of the Results, and the Similarities of the Internal and External Structures of the Spheres with Naturally Occurring Concretions. Experimental results of plasma discharges mimic formations observed in nature.

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Published by: Geeleegoat on Oct 10, 2012
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Introduction: The RapidElectrical Formation of StoneSpherules, the Scalability of theResults, and the Similarities ofthe Internal and ExternalStructures of the Spheres withNaturally Occurring Concretions
1. Published Results by Vemasat Laboratories
In 2004 Plasma Physicists CJ Ransom and WalThornhill carried out independent experimentswhich tested the effects of electric arcs on variousminerals and sands. Along with round craters ofvarious types, including flat-bottomed craters,electric arcs on many materials also created smallspherules. These stone spheres were formedelectrically not only using many types ofminerals, but also using different voltages and fordifferent durations, from 5-30 seconds. Thespherules appeared on the surface, under thesurface, and on the rims of craters[].The types of minerals tested are common to thesurfaces of the rocky planets in the solar system:silicon dioxide, iron oxide, talc, calciumcarbonate, lava sand and hematite.
 
White sand spheres with wire.
From “Plasma
-Generated Craters
and Spherules” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, August 2007
 Images courtesy of Dr. CJ Ransom
Of particular interest to the authors were thesmall, blue 1 mm hematite spherules formedrapidly by discharging an electric arc on hematitepowder. This result matched the images of theplentiful "blueberries" on the surface of Marsbeing returned at the time from the Red Planet bythe rover Opportunity.
 
 
These lab results creating "blueberries," alongwith the electrical generation of craters, revealedthat there was mounting, powerful evidence ofelectrical scarring not only on the planet Mars buton all the rocky bodies in the solar system.Planets, moons and asteroids likewise are coveredwith the familiar round, clean, flat-bottomedcraters, so mysteriously free of fallback debris[].The results were published by the IEEE, APS, andthe Open Astronomy Journal.
 
Later Stephen Smith wrote widely read papers onNew Zealand's Moeraki Boulders, recentlydiscovered Chinese concretions, and Martian
“blueberries
.
He expertly examined the evidenceboth from the structure of the concretions andfrom the surrounding rock strata, and made abold argument for an electrical, non-sedimentarytheory for their formation.
“The conventionaltheories,” he wrote,
 
are based exclusively onchemistry andmechanics. Butthere is anotherphenomena thatproduces spheres
electricdischarge.
…Electric
discharge tendsto producespherical layering and a distinct equator and pole,
because the electromagnetic force ‘squeezes’
perpendicular to the current that creates it
[].
Tim Fisher, longtime collector of crab concretions in theNW, holds a crab concretion along the poles, demonstratingthe best place to break it open - in this case along theequatorial bulge.Above: an example of a fossil crab from the Lincoln CreekFormation in Washington, showing excellent preservationand the radial layering, or outer rind, common tofossiliferous concretions.
1.1
Scalability of Vemasat’s Results
 
In his paper "Laboratory Modeling of MeteoriteImpact Craters by Z-pinch Plasma," Dr. CJRansom wrote a brief history of the use of lasersand spark-machining on metal surfaces toreproduce craters on a sub-millimeter scale. Dr.Ransom's work expanded the type of substancesused for experimentation, and also simulatedcraters to over a centimeter in diameter.Regarding the scalability of the results, CJRansom summarized:
 
"Although Dietz mentioned only terrestriallightning scale discharges, Alfven indicated thatlaboratory results can be extrapolated overtwenty orders of magnitude to include effectsseen in deep space. Peratt noted that experimentalplasma effects have been shown to be scalableover fourteen orders of magnitude. Others havealso noted that laboratory plasma experimentsmay be scaled to astrophysical phenomena."In "Plasma-Generated Craters and Spherules,"Ransom and Thornhill observe:"Spherules were created in a number of materials.Materials of particular interest in the studiesincluded magnesium silicate hydroxide (talc), andsili
con dioxide…
. Once determined, we foundthat specific materials and conditions alwaysproduced spherules. We also tested variouscarbonates and iron oxides. The experimentsproduced both individual spherules and joinedspherules."Because of both the scalability and theconsistency of obtaining results in the variety ofmaterials tested, the stonespheres created in the labhave deep, unsettlingimplications for the studyof concretions. Concretionsin nature occur in sizesranging from microscopicexamples to tourist destinations boasting 20 footconcretions resting on the valley floor.
The authoress sits on a fused pair of sandstone/calciumcarbonate concretions in Rock City, Kansas, with heryoungest daughter, Mary. Above: lab created fused spheres.
1.2 List of features observed in lab created stonespheres
Lab generation of stone spheres using plasmadischarges have so far coincided with theparameters necessary for the production of crater-like disturbances of the surface, and have resultedin a wide variety of forms. As said, lab spherescan be solid, hollow, fused pairs, fused multiples,and can even result in hemispheres with a flatplane.Other notable features include distinct poles,polar markings (possibly ripples), equatorialbands or bulges, radial layering, a round outerscar, smooth surfaces, and smooth/roughhemispheric differences.

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