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10 Great Architects of Post Independence India

10 Great Architects of Post Independence India

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Published by Soumya Dasgupta
A brief exhibit on 10 great architects of Post Independence India
A brief exhibit on 10 great architects of Post Independence India

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Soumya Dasgupta on Nov 13, 2012
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BRIEF STUDY | ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITECTURE | POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA | EXHIBITION | DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, TOWN AND REGIONAL PLANNING, B.E.S.U., SHIBPUR 
 Joseph Allen Stein
 First Head of the Department  Architecture and Planning Department  Bengal Engineering College
Born in 1912 in Omaha, Stein studied under the Finnisharchitect Eliel Saarinen at the Cranbrook Academy in Detroit,Michigan, in the early 1930s. This legendary campus designed
 by Saarinen and lled with sculptures by Carl Milles, theSwedish sculptor, inuenced Stein’s Design philosophy. Thedesign approach developed was very different to the Bauhausmodernism then taking hold in Europe, which arrived on the American shores with the immigration of Walter Gropius, Mies Van der Rohe and others just before the Second World War. The
Bauhaus tended to be insensitive to local culture and materials
of building, and advocated hard-edged design philosophy usingindustrial elements. The inuence on Stein, on the other hand, was a view, which incorporated organic materials, brick, stoneand wood, with a willingness to decorate through texture and
 volume, yet retaining a simplicity and human scale. Stein moved
to California in 1938 to work with the Austrian Richard Neutra, who became another great inuence. Neutra’s spare, eleganthouses were carefully sited in the California landscape with largeglass vistas blurring the boundaries of interior and exterior.Stein arrived in India in 1952, as head of the newly formed
 Architecture and Planning Department at the Bengal Engineering
College in Calcutta in 1952, little realizing that he would stay on.
Moving north to San Francisco, Stein became a vital part
of the design scene in the Bay Area working with architectJohn Funk and landscape designer Garret Eckbo, eventually opening his own ofce. Living in Mill Valley, Joe Stein designeda number of houses, which became recognized as majorexamples of the ‘California School’. As a team, they had planned
and designed a large cooperative residential community at
‘Ladera’ near Palo Alto, which had idealistic social aims of simplicity surrounded by landscaped beauty in the post-Warpeace. Unsuccessful in raising nancing, he moved to Europein the early 1950s. Richard Neutra, who had been invited by the Government of West Bengal to be an adviser, proposedStein’s name as head of the newly formed Architecture and
Planning Department at the Bengal Engineering College inCalcutta. Accepting the invitation, Stein arrived in 1952, little
realizing that he would stay on.He was awarded the Padma Shri, one of India’s highest civilian
honors, in 1992. 
He has written of his initial reaction: “It was a very stimulating,extraordinarily interesting time, India was almost newly Independent. It was like coming to the United States whenThomas Jefferson was alive, something like that.Stein’s famous works include - India International Centre, IndiaHabitat Centre, Sher-I-Kashmir Conference Centre, IndianInstitute of Management; Kozhikode.
 India International Centre Sher-I-Kashmir, International Conference Centre Indian Habitat CentreTriveni Kala Sangam Indian Institute of Management , Kozhikode Joseph Allen Stein walking up the stairwell of Ford Foundation, 1968.~ Photo (c) Madan Mahatta
 
BRIEF STUDY | ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITECTURE | POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA | EXHIBITION | DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, TOWN AND REGIONAL PLANNING, B.E.S.U., SHIBPUR 
 Fuller, Richard Buckminster 
 American systems theorist, architect, engineer,author, designer, inventor, and futurist.
Born in 1895 at Milton in Massachusetts, Buckminster Fullerhad a sketchy formal education which as not in much progress beyond two years (1913-’15) at Harvard. He was not an Architect by profession, but was a Naval Ofcer during the First World War. Working as a Visiting lecturer in various architecturalschools in USA, he received the award of merit of the New York chapter of the AIA in 1952. In 1959, national organization of thesame body rewarded him honorary membership.
DYMAXICON
The term Dymaxion was coined in 1929.The organization of theMarshall eld departmental store decided the name ‘House of Future’ instead of ‘4d’ for maximum publicity. Dymaxion is afusion of syllables related directly or indirectly to ‘Dynamism’,‘Maximum’ and ‘Icons’.
 1960 - One of the GREATEST MOMENTs of the Department of Architecture:
Prof. Richard Buckminster Fuller inaugurating an exhibition at
B E College.
 According to Mr. Dipak Majumdar (1963 batch):“..We were in 3rd year in 1960 when Mr. Buckminster Fuller visited us. We students of 3rd year built two geodesic domes with bamboos with direct guidance by him in the open area onthe east of Civil Engineering Dept. He sat on a drafting stool andgave us bottles of coke as we were working in the sun. On thethird day afternoon, he gave a lecture on “tensegrity structure”to the students in the gallery above the rst lobby entrance. Heleft in the evening.”
 Eden Project geodesic domesWichita House Biosphère Montréal Union Tank Car Company, Largest Dome at Baton Rouge, Louisiana
 
BRIEF STUDY | ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITECTURE | POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA | EXHIBITION | DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, TOWN AND REGIONAL PLANNING, B.E.S.U., SHIBPUR 
 Le Corbusier 
architect, designer, urbanist,and writer 
 Assembly Building, Chandigarh
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier (October6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was an architect, designer, urbanist,and writer, famous for being one of the pioneers of what is now calledmodern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became aFrench citizen in 1930. His career spanned ve decades, with his
 buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America.
He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicatedto providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded
cities.
Le Corbusier adopted his pseudonym in the 1920s, allegedly derivingit in part from the name of a distant ancestor, “Lecorbésier.”He was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1961.
Chandigarh High Court 
Le Corbusier developed the Modulor in the long tradition of Vitruvius,Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man, the work of Leone Battista Alberti,
and other attempts to discover mathematical proportions in the human
 body and then to use that knowledge to improve both the appearanceand function of architecture.[1] The system is based on human
measurements, the double unit, the Fibonacci numbers, and the golden
ratio. Le Corbusier described it as a “range of harmonious measurements
to suit the human scale, universally applicable to architecture and to
mechanical things.”

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