People always wanted to communicate and their demands grew with the possibilities offered by technology. Nowadays, modern technology enablesmobile communications in many situations. An important component inmobile communications is non-cellular wireless communication systems for short distances.Wireless communication systems can be roughly divided into twocategories: cellular and non-cellular systems. In cellular systems the area to be covered is divided in a number of cells. All communication in a cell goesvia a single base-station located in that cell. Hand-over protocols andconnections between base-stations enable roaming over cell borders. Theconsequence of this concept is that both an infrastructure and a complex protocol are required. Non-cellular systems form another category of wireless communication systems for which no infrastructure is required. Inthis sense the complete system itself is mobile.
FIG 1. Ad-hoc networks
In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be aneed for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significantexamples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic communicationfor emergency/rescue operations, disaster relief efforts, and militarynetworks.
Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm formobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, adhoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead,hosts rely on each