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Final Synopsis

Final Synopsis

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Published by: soumitra_dgp on Nov 30, 2012
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People always wanted to communicate and their demands grew with the possibilities offered by technology. Nowadays, modern technology enablesmobile communications in many situations. An important component inmobile communications is non-cellular wireless communication systems for short distances.Wireless communication systems can be roughly divided into twocategories: cellular and non-cellular systems. In cellular systems the area to be covered is divided in a number of cells. All communication in a cell goesvia a single base-station located in that cell. Hand-over protocols andconnections between base-stations enable roaming over cell borders. Theconsequence of this concept is that both an infrastructure and a complex protocol are required. Non-cellular systems form another category of wireless communication systems for which no infrastructure is required. Inthis sense the complete system itself is mobile.
FIG 1. Ad-hoc networks
In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be aneed for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significantexamples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic communicationfor emergency/rescue operations, disaster relief efforts, and militarynetworks.
Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm formobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, adhoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead,hosts rely on each
other to keep the network connected. Ad hoc networks are anew paradigm of wireless communication for mobile hosts(which we call nodes). In an ad hoc network, there is no fixedinfrastructure such as base stations or mobile switchingcenters. Mobile nodes that are within each other’s radiorange communicate directly via wireless links, while thosethat are far apart rely on other nodes to relay messages asrouters. Node mobility in an ad hoc network causes frequentchanges of the network topology.
The ALOHA protocol was one of the first random-access protocols to beused in wireless communication. This protocol allows stations to transmitany time they desire. If within some timeout no acknowledgment is receivedfor the transmitted packet, then the station assumes that a collision occurredand the packet needs to be retransmitted.An improvement over pure ALOHA is to synchronize the channel byslotting time into segments whose duration is exactly equal to the time for transmission of a single packet. This is known as slotted ALOHA. Sinceeach station starts packets only at the beginning of a slot, when packetsconflict, it is ensured that they will overlap completely rather than partially, providing an increase in channel efficiency.CSMA uses carrier sensing to avoid collisions by listening to the carrier dueto another stations transmission. An important assumption used here is thatthe propagation delay on the channel is much smaller than a packettransmission time. Since, the vulnerability period is reduced from the packettransmission time to the propagation time; CSMA represents a substantialimprovement over ALOHA. The throughput of CSMA protocols is verygood as long as there are no hidden terminals. This means that there arestations which cannot hear each other and consequently might send packetsat the same time to a receiver causing the packets to collide. In the presenceof hidden terminals performance of CSMA degrades to that of ALOHA.The next phase of wireless protocols was those using CSMA/CA techniques.Here a station that has a packet to send, sends a request to send (RTS) over the channel. If the receiver gets the packet correctly, it sends a clear to send(CTS). The CTS tells the sender when to send the data. The advantage over CSMA protocols is that the data packet goes in clear. Only the RTS's facecontention. There have been many proposals of CSMA/CA to date. MACA
was a CSMA/CA protocol that did not use carrier sensing. MACAW is avariation of MACA with better retransmission strategies. However, bothMACA and MACAW suffer from hidden-terminal interference. Thehidden-terminal problem in multihop networks is solved by usingCSMA/CA and using a CTS lasting much longer than the RTS. This ensuresthat hidden senders detect carrier while waiting for their CTS's. The tail of the CTS now becomes a busy tone from the receivers to all the senders, andall the senders back off enough to allow the data to go in the clear.
2.2 Spread-Spectrum Techniques
In recent years, the use of spread-spectrum techniques for wireless networkshas been an active area of research. CDMA is a direct application of spread-spectrum techniques. CDMA is different from the standard channelallocation strategies. Some of these standards strategies divide the channelinto frequency bands and then assign them statically (FDMA) or dynamically (wavelength division multiplexing). Others allocate the channelin bursts in time statically (FDMA) or randomly (ALOHA).CDMA allows each station to transmit simultaneously on a wide frequencyspectrum. Using a wide bandwidth reduces multipath fading because of thefrequency diversity achieved. It also increases tolerance to jamming andnarrow band interference. CDMA comes in two forms. In the frequencyhopping (FH) systems the total bandwidth is partitioned into a set of channels of equal bandwidth. In this scheme, each station is assigned ahopping pattern corresponding to its code. Both the transmitter and thereceiver dwell on the same channel and hop together to another channelafterwards while talking to each other.The second form of CDMA is direct sequence (DS). The spread spectrumsignals are generated by linear modulation with wideband sequences(codes)assigned to each station. The spreading codes are the most important aspectof CDMA technology. The codes are Walsh codes based on a 64X64 Walshmatrix. Multiple transmissions can be separated using coding theory asexplained below.In DS-CDMA each bit time is subdivided into m short intervals called chips.Each station is assigned a unique m-bit code or chip sequence. To transmit a1 bit, a station sends its chip sequence or code. To transmit a 0 bit, thestations send the one's complement of its code. All chip sequences are pair wise orthogonal, which means that the normalized inner product of any twocode's S and T is 0. This can be written as

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