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FM 3-22.10 Chapter 5 Tracking and Evasion FD 2 Oct 08

FM 3-22.10 Chapter 5 Tracking and Evasion FD 2 Oct 08



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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: borninshadows on Jan 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Tracking and Evasion
In combat, a sniper team might have to track and kill an enemy sniper operating inthe friendly area of operations. Success in this case depends greatly on the team’stracking ability. The sniper team might also be deployed to an isolated position,where they must evade enemy forces and survive for some time without friendlysupport. A sniper must never surrender to the enemy unless continued evasion andresistance will lead only to certain death with no significant loss to the enemy. Whileevading capture, a sniper can continue to inflict casualties on the enemy.
"There is nothing that sharpens a man's senses so acutely as to know that bitter anddetermined enemies are in pursuit of him night and day."— Frederick R. Burnham,
Scouting On Two Continents
Tracking is the art of following a person or animal by the signs that they leave during their movement.
1.When a sniper follows a trail, he builds a picture of the enemy in his mind by asking himself thesequestions:1.How many people am I following?1.Are they well-trained?1.Are they well-equipped?1.Are they healthy?1.How is their morale?1.Do they know that we are following them?1.The sniper answers these questions by seeking and evaluating indicators of certain actions at certaintimes and places. For example, a footprint and a waist-high scuff on a tree could mean that an armed person passed that way. The freshness of the scuff helps identify how much time has passed since the person brushed against the tree.1.Snipers evaluate the six types of tracking indicators based on their content, cause, and conditions.Table 5-1 outlines the six types of indicators and provides some examples of each type.
Chapter 5
Table 5-1. Six types of tracking indicators and examples.
DisplacementFootprint in mud or soft dirtSharp edge marksCrushed vegetation and twigsDislodged stonesFlattened vegetation in the shape of a personStainsBloodstainsMuddy drag marksCrushed leaf, grass, or berry stainsWeather Smell or sound carrying downwindRain causing mud to settle into a footprintColor of bloodstain due to exposure to air Litter Candy or gum wrappersFood cansCigarette buttsEvidence of firesHuman fecesCamouflageWalking backward to baffle the sniper Brushing out trailsMoving over rocky ground or through streamsImmediate-UseIntelligenceKnown enemy unit movementVillage without men of military age
1.Displacement occurs when something moves from its original position or changes from its naturalstate. It can result when someone tracks mud through an area, clears a trail (resulting in crushedvegetation and broken twigs), or comes to a rest when carrying a heavy load.1.The sniper can analyze the displaced substance to determine more information about the enemy.Analysis can include— 1.Analysis of footprints.1.Recognition of other signs of displacement.
The sniper finds a muddy footprint. The print is left by someone with bare feet. Thisindicates that the person who left the print lacks proper equipment.The sniper locates a trail that someone has cleared by breaking or cutting throughheavy vegetation with a machete. Someone walking behind this person has brokentrail and, without realizing it, broken more branches.Someone carrying a heavy load stops to rest. The edge of a box has left a mark thathelps the sniper identify the carrier or the load. Also, the load has crushed grass andtwigs, and pushed surface stones deeper.
5-2FM 3-22.10Date
Chapter 5
1.Footprints can indicate direction, rate of movement, number, gender, and knowledge that someone istracking him. Attributes of footprints include the following:1.If footprints are deep and the pace is long, rapid movement is apparent. Long strides and deep prints that are deeper at the toes than the heels indicate running (A, Figure 5-1).1.Short, deep, widely spaced prints with signs of scuffing or shuffling indicate someone carrying aheavy load (B, Figure 5-1).1.Prints with unnaturally deep toes and soil displaced to the rear might indicate the short, irregular,stride of someone walking backwards (C, Figure 5-1). This could indicate that the person tried tohide his tracks.1.To determine the gender of the person (D, Figure 5-1), the sniper should study the size and position of the footprints. Women tend to walk with their toes pointed somewhat inward; menwalk with their feet straight or pointed slightly outward. Also, women's prints are usually smaller and closer together (shorter stride) than those left by men.
Figure 5-1. Footprint types.
5-3FM 3-22.10Date

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