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Published by allansheena

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Published by: allansheena on Feb 05, 2009
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06/27/2012

 
INTRODUCTION
Pneumonia is aninflammation of the lungscaused by an infection. It is also calledPneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia. Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health.Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronicillnesses, it can also strike young,healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in the Philippines, thus, it remains an importantcause of morbidity and mortalityin the country.There are many kinds of pneumonia that range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. In infectious pneumonia, bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms attack your lungs, leading to inflammation that makes it hard to breathe. Pneumonia can affectone or both lungs. In the young and healthy, early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia. The drugs used to fight pneumonia are determined by the germcausing the pneumonia and the judgment of the doctor. It’s best to do everything we canto prevent pneumonia, but if one do get sick, recognizing and treating the disease earlyoffers the best chance for a full recovery.A case with a diagnosis of Pneumonia may catch one’s attention, though the disease is just like an ordinary cough and fever, it can lead to death especially when no interventionor care is done. Since the case is a toddler, an appropriate care has to be done to make the patient’s recovery faster. Treating patients with pneumonia is necessary to prevent itsspread to others and make them as another victim of this illness.
The lungs constitute the largest organ in the respiratory system. They play an importantrole in respiration, or the process of providing the body with oxygen and releasing carbondioxide. The lungs expand and contract up to 20 times per minute taking in and disposingof those gases.Air that is breathed in is filled with oxygen and goes to the trachea, which branches off into one of two bronchi. Each bronchus enters a lung. There are two lungs, one on eachside of the breastbone and protected by the ribs. Each lung is made up of lobes, or sections. There are three lobes in the right lung and two lobes in the left one. The lungsare cone shaped and made of elastic, spongy tissue. Within the lungs, the bronchi branchout into minute pathways that go through the lung tissue. The pathways are called bronchioles, and they end at microscopic air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli aresurrounded by capillaries and provide oxygen for the blood in these vessels. Theoxygenated blood is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. The alveoli also takein carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled from the body.Inhaling is due to contractions of the diaphragm and of muscles between the ribs.Exhaling results from relaxation of those muscles. Each lung is surrounded by a two-layered membrane, or the pleura, that under normal circumstances has a very, very smallamount of fluid between the layers. The fluid allows the membranes to easily slide over each other during breathing.
 
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Pneumonia is a serious infection or inflammation of your lungs. The air sacs in the lungsfill with pus and other liquid. Oxygen has trouble reaching your blood. If there is too littleoxygen in your blood, your body cells can’t work properly. Because of this and spreadinginfection through the body pneumonia can cause death. Pneumonia affects your lungs intwo ways. Lobar pneumonia affects a section (lobe) of a lung. Bronchial pneumonia (or  bronchopneumonia) affects patches throughout both lungs.Bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. Of these,Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common. Other pathogens include anaerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus,Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, C. trachomatis, Moraxella(Branhamella) catarrhalis, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other gram-negative bacilli. Major pulmonary pathogens in infants and childrenare viruses: respiratory syncytial virus,parainfluenza virus, and influenza A and B viruses. Amongother agents are higher bacteria including Nocardia and Actinomyces sp; mycobacteria,including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical strains; fungi, including Histoplasmacapsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans,Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pneumocystis carinii; and rickettsiae, primarily Coxiella burnetii (Q fever).The usual mechanisms of spread are inhaling droplets small enough to reach the alveoliand aspirating secretions from the upper airways. Other means include hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination and direct spread from contiguous infections. Predisposingfactors includeupper respiratory viral infections, alcoholism, institutionalization, cigarette smoking, heart failure, chronic obstructive airway disease, age extremes,debility, immunocompromise (as in diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure),compromised consciousness, dysphagia, and exposure to transmissible agents.
 
Typical symptoms include cough, fever, and sputum production, usually developing over days and sometimes accompanied by pleurisy. Physical examination may detecttachypnea and signs of consolidation, such as crackles with bronchial breath sounds. Thissyndrome is commonly caused by bacteria, such as S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.
NURSING PROFILE
a. Patient’s Profile Name: R.C.S.B.Age: 1 yr,1 mo.Weight:10 kgsReligion: Roman CatholicMother: C.B.Address: Valenzuela City b. Chief Complaint: Fever Date of Admission: 1
st
admissionHospital Number: 060000086199c. History of Present Illness2 days PTA – (+) cough(+) nasal congestion, watery to greenish(+) nasal dischargeTx: Disudrin ODLoviscol ODFew hrs PTA - (+) fever, Tmax= 39.3 C(+) difficulty of breathing(+) vomiting, 1 episodeTx: Paracetamol

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