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Dynamic Modelling and Cascaded Controller Design of a Low-Speed Maneuvering ROV

Dynamic Modelling and Cascaded Controller Design of a Low-Speed Maneuvering ROV

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Published by: Juan Santiago Latigo Colli on Dec 19, 2012
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12/09/2013

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1
Dynamic Modelling and Cascaded Controller
 
Design Of A Low-Speed Maneuvering ROVCheng Siong Chin
a
, Micheal Wai Shing Lau
a
, Eicher Low
a
, Gerald Gim Lee Seet
a
a
Robotic Research Centre, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NanyangTechnological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798
Abstract
: This paper considers an analysis and cascaded controller design for a low-speedmaneuvering Remotely Operated Vehicle (RRC ROV II) designed by Robotic Research Centre(RRC), in Nanyang Technological University (NTU). First, the vehicle’s, thruster’s and tether dynamic used for control system design are defined. A linear ROV model can be used since thecontroller is tasked to keep the vehicle about the equilibrium position during station-keepingcondition, and therefore the vehicle’s dynamic and thruster’s model obtained from experimenttest rig, can be linearized about this equilibrium position.To enable a best choice of input and output units for use and to achieve a block diagonaldominance system, pre and post compensators from Edmunds scaling and reordering algorithmthat performs both scaling and re-ordering of the input and output pairs are used. With roll and pitch motions of the ROV being self-regulating, there are four degree of freedoms (DOF) to becontrolled using four thrusters instead of six DOF. Subsequently, a cascade structure is proposedfor the control system design. A
H
controller is designed for the inner velocity’s control loopwhere suitable weighting functions are chosen to account for tether disturbance and parametricuncertainty while PD controller is designed for outer position’s control loop.With the proposed proportional derivative (PD) with
H
cascaded control for the nonlinear vehicle model, the simulation test with disturbances show a smaller standard deviation in theoutput position compared to the PD-linear quadratic gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG-LTR) and single-loop PD controller.
Keywords:
Edmunds scaling, thruster, diagonal dominances, tether disturbance, parametricuncertainty,
H
and cascaded control.
 
2
1. INTRODUCTION
The RRC ROV II is designed to be a sub-compact intervention class ROV combining thefunctions of an eye-ball ROV and a work class ROV. It has a man-in-the-loop as the supervisor with complementary on-board controller for local control and decision making capabilities. Thevehicle is equipped with a suite of navigational sensors; INS, Doppler and side scan sonars- a pair of cameras with ”stereo viewing” capabilities. Its designed tasks include inspections and repairsof pipe lines and structures. Station-keeping would require the vehicle to hover over a certain setof coordinates while maintaining a fixed orientation in the presence of various types of disturbances. The control of this task is exacerbated by the vehicle having non-linear dynamics,tether disturbance, under-actuated and motion amongst its DOF is coupled.Decoupling of the various DOF is useful not only for controller design but also in determiningallocation of control authority. The ability to decouple depends on the vehicle physical propertiesand thrusters arrangement. For example, the slender form of the NPS AUV
[1]
allows for decoupling into three different control regimes using two propellers and control surfaces
.
Withthe ROV design, it is not possible to decouple in this sense, but in RRC ROV I
[2]
it is possible toallocate control efforts to the outputs and to achieve a decentralized control through Edmundsscaling and reordering routine. Even though the ROV is under-actuated, task associated withinspection requiring the station keeping can be accomplished using a roll and pitch stabilizedcamera platform.In controller design, it is commonly accepted that linear PID (or PD) controller based onlinearized model does not perform as well as sliding mode control (SMC)
[6]
,
 
adaptive control(AC)
[4]
and feedback linearization (FBLN)
[7]
, amongst others, for instance in trajectorytracking and when uncertainties are present
[3]
. It has been shown that AC can be designed to berobust. Uncertainty can also be designed using robust controller such as the
H
methodology
[5].
However, PID/PD controllers are commonly used in commercial ROV, as it is easily understoodamongst pilots. To overcome certain limitations, they can be used in combination, for example,with AC dynamic compensation
[8]
. The use of the
H
controller in cascaded with PD controller and combination of the pilot provides some robust response against disturbance and also non-linear behaviour.The outline of this paper is as follows: The modeling of vehicle dynamic that includes modelingof added mass coefficient component, thruster’s and three-dimensional tether dynamic’s areshown. Then, the linear ROV dynamic for station-keeping condition is obtained, followed, anEdmunds scaling and reordering routine is used to identify the degree of coupling amongst theDOF and for decoupling the linear system into two block diagonal dominance system of nearly
 
3
decoupled subsystems. In section 6, a cascaded control structure is defined with inner loopconsists of the H
 
controller for disturbance attenuation and the outer loop the PD controller.Section 7 shows a detailed approach using H
controller design is introduced and lastly acomputer simulation is performed to compare the performance of the PD-H
with PD-LQG/LTR and the PD only control system design.
2. ROV RRC II OVERVIEW
The development of a “twin barrel” ROV named ROV RRC II (see Fig. 1) is a joint research partnership with the British Gas. The first phase of work focuses on the implementing virtualreality (VR) techniques in the ROV RRC II simulator/training platform, is developed with BritishGas to has better intelligent control and more data collection capabilities as compared to its predecessor. The ROV would be a combination of the work-class and inspection-class ROV. This“immediate” class ROV is small enough and able to maneuver within constrained workspace andyet the capacity of carrying additional payloads such as additional sensors and equipment. Thus,the ROV RRC II is slightly larger in size and heavier in weight. These sensors and equipment aremounted on two pods as shown in Fig. 2. A brief description of the component layout of the ROVRRC II is given.1.
 
4x thrusters, each providing up to 70N of thrust;2.
 
2x cylindrical floats3.
 
4x balancing steel weight4.
 
Main pod (Pod 1)5.
 
Sensors and navigational pod (Pod 2)6.
 
2x halogen lamps7.
 
External sensors including altimeter, scanning sonar and depth sensor This ROV has a twin-pod design. The vehicle’s circuitry and components are housed in twomodular pods are secured using custom-made frame. The main pod (named Pod 1) is responsiblefor vehicle’s communication and control. The first stage of power transformation is placed here.The stepped-down power is consumed by all other devices and peripherals of the RRC ROV II.This pod houses the host computer that communicates with the topside ROV control platform. Itinterprets the topside commands and executes them and sends back vital positional and visualdata to surface which is collected from the second pod and camera platform respectively. Besidesthat, it is also responsible for controlling the vehicle’s motion since the motion controller residesin the main processing board. The Pod 1 consists of the following components:

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