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Hadith Explaning Ilm al gaib

Hadith Explaning Ilm al gaib

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Eighty Hadiths onthe Prophet's Knowledge of theUnseen
Dr. G. F. HaddadIntroduction
Qadi Yusuf al-Nabahani said: First of all, you should know that knowledge of theunseen is the priviledge of Allah Most High, and that its appearance on the tongue of the Messenger of Allah and others comes from Allah (swt) either through revelationor through inspiration. The Prophet said in the h.adith: "I swear it by Allah! Truly Iknow nothing except what my Lord taught me."
1
So everything that came to us fromhim consisting in news of the unseen is nothing other than the Divine disclosure tohim as a proof for the actuality of his Prophethood and its truth.In other words, as expounded at length by Shaykh Ahmad Rida Khan, theProphet's
`ilm al-ghayb
is partial (
 juz'i
), non-exhaustive (
ghayr ihati
), bestowed(
`ata'i
) and not independent (
ghayr istiqlali
) as established once and for all by theQur'anic verse
"the knower of the Unseen, and He reveals unto none His secret saveunto every messenger whom He has chosen
" (72:26-27).Al-Nabahani said: The listing of the miracles in this chapter cannot be exhaustedbecause of their large number and the fact that they took place at his hands in most of his states, whether they asked him questions or not, whatever circumstances dictated.These are the most numerous of his stunning miracles Al-Qad.i `Iyad. said in
al-Shifa' 
: "His knowledge of the unseen counts among those miracles of his that areknown categorically and definitely, coming to us through mass transmissions with avast number of narrators and congruent meanings."
2
 The Prophet's familiarity with and knowledge of the unseen was a well-known anduniversally recognized fact among both the believers and the unbelievers to the pointthat one of them would say to the other, "Hush! By Allah, even if there is none amongus to tell him, the very stones and pebbles would tell him."
3
Al-Bukhari narrated fromIbn `Umar (ra): "We kept away from conversation and leisurely talk to our womenlest some revelation come down concerning us. After the Prophet died we spoke morefreely."
4
Al-Bayhaqi narrated from Sahl ibn Sa`d al-Sa`idi (ra): "I swear by Allah thatsome of us would refrain from doing something with his wife as he and she lay
 
together under the same sheet for fear some Qur'anic revelation should come downconcerning them."
5
`Abd Allah ibn Rawah.a said (ra):Among us is the Messenger of Allah reciting His BookAs the radiant light cleaves the true dawn's sky.He showed us guidance after blindness and our heartsNow firmly know that all he says will take place.
6
 and H.assan ibn Thabit said (ra):A Prophet who sees around him what others do notAnd recites the Book of Allah in every assembly!If he says something of a day which he has not yet seenWhat he says is confirmed on the morrow or the next day.
7
 The above two quatrains put to rest the odd claim of the author of 
Taqwiyat al- Iman
that the Prophet did not know what would happen on the next day on thegrounds that he said, "Avoid saying this" to the slave-girl reciting poetry when shesaid, "Among us is a Prophet that knows what happens tomorrow."
8
The reason forthis order is not because he did not know - since it is established that Allah (swt)is
"the Knower of the Unseen, and He reveals unto none His secret save unto everymessenger whom He has chosen" 
(72:26-27) and that He revealed to the Prophetknowledge of the future until the Day of Judgment and much of the Hereafter as well -but because knowledge of the unseen was attributed to him in absolute terms whenonly Allah knows the unseen in absolute terms.
9
Coming from the mouth of a childnot yet qualified to pray,
10
such an assertion was reminiscent of the popular belief unbecoming of a Prophet but typical of the false claims of seers, oracles, astrologersetc. that they could, of their own devices, know the future, to which Allah (swt)said
"No soul knoweth what it will earn tomorrow" 
(31:34). Hence, the Prophet , inone version, added by way of explanation, "Only Allah knows what happenstomorrow"
11
i.e. independently of anyone and with an absolute knowledge.
NOTES
 1 When the camel of the Prophet was lost during the Tabuk expedition he askedpeople for its whereabouts, whereupon one of the hypocrites [Zayd ibn al-Las.it al-Qaynuqa`i] said, "Here is Muh.ammad to whom come news from the heaven and heknows not where his camel is." At this he praised Allah then said: "A certain man saidsuch-and-such. Truly, I do not know anything except what my Lord taught me, andHe has informed me that the camel is in such-and-such a vale with its reins entangledin a tree." The people ran and found it. Narrated from the Companions Mah.mud ibn
 
Labid and `Umara ibn H.azim by Ibn Ish.aq in al-Maghazi as stated by Ibn Hisham inthe
Sira
(5:203) and al-T.abari in his
Tarikh
(2:184); Ibn H.azm in
al- Muh.alla
(11:222) and Ibn H.ajar in
Fath. al-Bari
(1959 ed. 13:364) and
al- Is.aba
(2:619), while Ibn H.ibban cites it without chain in
al-Thiqat 
(2:93). Alsonarrated by al-Taymi in
 Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
(p. 137) citing Ibn Qutayba's report. Thesegment quoted by al-Nabahani is also narrated from `Uqba ibn `Amir by Abu al-Shaykh in
al-`Az.ama
(4:1468-1469 #96714) as part of a longer narration that includes:"I shall inform you of what you came here to ask me about before you tell me and, if you wish, you can speak first then I will answer you... You came to ask me about Dhual-Qarnayn...." The camel of the Prophet was similarly lost and found in theexpedition of H.udaybiyya.2 `Iyad.,
al-Shifa' 
(p. 413-414): "... and congruent meanings pointing to his familiaritywith the unseen."3 Spoken by Abu Sufyan ibn H.arb to `Attab ibn Usayd and al-H.arith ibn Hishamoutside the Ka`ba on the conquest of Makka as the Prophet was inside with Bilal.Cited by al-Kila`i in
al-Iktifa' 
(2:230). Cf. al-Mawardi,
 A`lam al-Nubuwwa
(p. 165).4 Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah, and Ah.mad.5 Narrated by al-T.abarani in
al-Kabir 
(6:196 #5985) through
Sah.ih.
narrators per al-Haythami (10:284).6 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Bukhari in
al-Tarikh al-S.aghir 
(1:23) and al-T.abarani in
al-Ah.ad wa al-Mathani
(4:38). Al-Qurt.ubi (14:100) and Ibn Kathir(3:460) cite it in their
Tafsirs
.7 Narrated from Hisham ibn H.ubaysh by al-T.abarani in
al-Kabir 
(4:48-50), al-H.akim (3:9-10) with a chain he declared sound, Ibn `Abd al-Barr in
al- Isti`ab
(4:1958-1962), al-Taymi in
 Dala'il al-Nubuwwa
(p. 59-60), and al-Lalika'i inhis
Sharh. Us.ul I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunna
(4:780). Cf. al-T.abari in his
Tafsir 
(1:447-448)Ibn H.ibban in
al-Thiqat 
(1:128) and al-Kila`i in
al-Iktifa' 
(1:343). Also narrated fromAbu Ma`bad al-Khuza`i by Ibn Sa`d (1:230-232) but this is
mursal
and Abu Ma`bad isa Tabi`i as stated by Ibn H.ajar in
al-Is.aba
(#10545).8 Narrated from al-Rubayyi` bint Mu`awwidh in al-Bukhari, the
Sunan
, and Ah.mad.9 As stated by Ibn H.ajar in his commentary of this narration in
Fath. al-Bari.
 10 As stated by Ibn al-Qayyim in his marginalia on Abu Dawud's
Sunan
.

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