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Sensation and Perception Final

Sensation and Perception Final

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Published by Hollen Campbell
Psychology of Sensation and Perception study guide
Psychology of Sensation and Perception study guide

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Published by: Hollen Campbell on Feb 04, 2013
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11/29/2013

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Study Guide #4 Fall 20121.
 
What is “projective geometry”? Explain how foreshortening and size scaling help us interpret
scenes in 3 dimensions.
o
 
Projective geometry
investigates the mathematical relationships between objects in theenvironment and their optical projections on the retina or on a picture.
o
 
Foreshortening-
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contractionof an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.Changes in
surface orientation
causes projected
shape
to change
o
 
Size scaling-
changes in
surface depth
causes projected
size
to change2.
 
What are
the 4 perceptual biases
the visual system relies on to resolve ambiguities in mapping2-D visual information into 3-D perception. Give an explicit example of each.
i.
 
perceived as resting on the ground
(shadows/illuminations can override)
 ii.
 
depth increases with height in the viewing plane
iii.
 
Convex interpretations are preferred
over concave ones.iv.
 
generic views are preferred
over those that require a specific vantage point3.
 
What is an Ames Room and what is the underlying principle that causes the objects within it tohave illusory sizes?
Trapezoidal room
; creates an optical illusion with one large and one small person, a specially designedroom that is trapezoidal in shape but
appears to be rectangular 
. This room gives misleading visual cuesthat lead people to
believe that two similar-sized objects are of different sizes
, depending onwhere their locations in the room are.4.
 
What are “generic views”? Accidental views? Non
-accidental properties? What relevance do theyhave in the study of 3D structure? Give a specific example.
Generic views-Accidental views
-if you look straight on at a box, you see a square, if you look at a bottle, you see a circle;
 
there are 26 combinations of ways you can define objects
; require a specific vantage point
-An accidental view of curved edges can produce the perception of an Impossible Cube or Triangle.
Non-accidental properties
- parallel lines and vertices,
implicit knowledge of environment regularities
 facilitates viewpoint-invariant recognition; are properties of an image such as
 
co-linearity
 
co-termination
 
parallelismthat
seldom occur by accident 
within optical projections. Thus, if lines in an image are parallel (or co-terminate), they will be interpreted perceptually as if they are parallel (or co-terminating) in the 3Denvironment.5.
 
What was
Brunelleschi’s Panel?
What is the depth cue on which it was based?(
Linear Perspective
) -convergence on a vanishing point-In 1413, Brunelleschi painted a picture of a baptistery on some silver. He drilled a hole into thepainting and
held up a mirror 
 , and the Italians he did this to couldn’t tell the difference between
the real building and the painted building through the pinhole.
-In 1417, he drew a church exactly before it was made that way.-Depth cue he exploited
was linear perspective
- idea being: there is a vanishing point where allthe parallel lines meet up and in infinity they go to zero.6.
 
What is anamorphic art? Give three examples
Anamorphic Art
: a distorted projection or perspective; especially an image distorted insuch a way that it
becomes visible only when viewed in a special manner 
. "Ana - morphosis" are Greek words meaning "formed again."- Examples:o Orosz- mirror cylinder on top of finger painting.o Julian Beever-
chalk art (nonaccidental alignments).
 o Varlini- yellow square on picture (continuous contours).7.
 
How, in principle, could the visual system use
ocular-motor cues
to deduce the relative distancesof objects from the viewer?
Convergence and accommodation
 
These are cues based on the ability to sense the position of our eyes and the tension in the eyemuscles.)
8.
 
What is linear perspective and how can the visual system use this cue to deduce relative depthfrom the observer. What is the horizon ratio?
Convergence on a vanishing pointHorizon ratio
- The horizon ratio principle states that, if a person is standing on flatterrain, the place where the horizon intersects the object will be one eye-height above the ground.9.
 
How do special effects editors create the perception of giant or diminutive people in movies
Special effects use:
-
forced perspective
- employs the optical illusion to make an object
appear on a different scale
 - -manipulates human visual perception through the use of 
scaled objects and the correlationbetween them
and the vantage point of the camera- -
displacement 
of objects for one to be closer to the camera and therefore look bigger10.
 
What is meant by surface texture and how can it be used to define 3-D structure?11.
 
What is chiaroscuro? What is bas-relief -
 
Chiaroscuro-
shading varies
with orientation of surface to
light source
, not viewer. Use of light to unify the scene; give 3D appearance to objects, and to create emotional effects.-
 
Bas-relief 
-type of sculpture in which the relief of the depicted objects is
much flatter
than wouldordinarily be the case. However, this has little effect on perceived 3D structure.12.
 
What is retinal disparity? Crossed and uncrossed disparity? What is the horopter?-
 
Retinal Disparity
-The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual
 
stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
-
 
Crossed Disparity
-
right eye’s image is to the left of the left eye’s image.
Point is in front of the image plane.

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