Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 4 (1): 11 - 17, 2011 ISSN: 2141 – 4238© Wilolud Journals, 2011http://www.wiloludjournal.com ` Printed in NigeriaTHE ANTINOCICEPTIVE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT OF
IN ALBINO RATSH .Ighodaro¹ and S.O Bello²¹Department of Clinical Pharmacy,UsmanuDanfodiyo University,Sokoto.
Department of Pharmacology andToxicology,Usmanu Danfodiyo University,Sokoto.ABSTRACT
is a perennial plant commonly used in Nigeria traditional medicine for thetreatment of pain, particularly body and joint pains. However, little scientific evidence exists in literature on theantinociceptive property of this plant.Furthermore; current analgesics being used in the treatment of pain havenumerous undesirable side effects. There is therefore the need for further research for new analgesics acting onnew pain receptors. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the aqeousstem bark extract of
in Albino rats.The acetic acid induced abdominal constriction test and the Formalin-induced paw licking test methods wereused for the pain evaluation. In the acetic acid induced abdominal constriction test, the method used was thatdescribed by Koster
(1959) as modified by Amos
2002. A total of 20 rats were divided into two sets of two groups of rats with one control group; with n=4. The first set was pre-treated with the extract at 100 and 200mg/kg p.o; with pre-treatment time of 30 min. The second set was similarly treated but with a pre-treatment timeof 60 min. Each group was administered 10ml/kg intra peritoneal(i.p) of an aqueous solution of acetic acid(0.7%). The rats were then held upward and the number of abdominal constriction for each rat counted for 10min immediately after treatment with acetic acid. The observer of the abdominal constriction was blinded to theexact treatment the animal received. The control group was given normal saline for pre-treatment and comparedwith the extract treated groups. The % inhibitions of abdominal constrictions for the extract treated groups werecalculated. The Formalin test used was similar to that described by Dubusson and Dennis (1977) and modifiedby Tjolsen
(1992). Three groups of rats weighing between 100-160g consisting of 4 rats per group werepre-treated as follows:Group one normal saline (acted as control)Group two was given 100mg/kg of extractGroup three was given 200mg/kg of extractThirty minutes after this treatment, they were administered 50µl of a 2.5% solution of formalin subcutaneouslyunder the plantar surface of the left hind-paw. They were then placed in an observation chamber and monitoredfor 1 hour, and the severity of pain was recorded based on the following pain score;(0)
Rat walked or stood firmly on infected paw.(1)
The infected paw was favoured or practically elevated.(2)
The infected paw was clearly lifted off the floor.(3)
The rat licked, chewed or shook the infected paw.The observer was blinded to the exact treatment the animal received.Antinociceptive effect was determined in two phases.(i)
The early phase been recorded during the first five minutes, while the late phase(ii)
Was recorded during the last 45 minutes with a 10min lag period in between both phases.The aqeous extract(200 and100mg/Kg) significantly and in a dose dependent manner reduced the nociceptioninduced by the acetic acid and in both the early and late phases of Formalin test (P<0.05). Acetic acid inducedwrithing is a model of visceral pain and is a highly sensitive and useful test for analgesic drug development butnot a selective pain test.Formalin test however is sensitive to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and othermild analgesics.The extract of
produced significant analgesic effect in bothphases of the Formalin pain test. This probably indicates that the analgesic effect of the extract was mediated byboth neurogenic and inflammatory mechanisms.