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The Antinociceptive Effect of the Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Amblygonocarpus

The Antinociceptive Effect of the Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Amblygonocarpus

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Published by Francis Abulude
ABSTRACT
Amblygonocarpus andogensis is a perennial plant commonly used in Nigeria traditional medicine for the
treatment of pain, particularly body and joint pains. However, little scientific evidence exists in literature on the
antinociceptive property of this plant.Furthermore; current analgesics being used in the treatment of pain have
numerous undesirable side effects. There is therefore the need for further research for new analgesics acting on
new pain receptors. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the aqeous
stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andogensis in Albino rats.
ABSTRACT
Amblygonocarpus andogensis is a perennial plant commonly used in Nigeria traditional medicine for the
treatment of pain, particularly body and joint pains. However, little scientific evidence exists in literature on the
antinociceptive property of this plant.Furthermore; current analgesics being used in the treatment of pain have
numerous undesirable side effects. There is therefore the need for further research for new analgesics acting on
new pain receptors. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the aqeous
stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andogensis in Albino rats.

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Published by: Francis Abulude on Mar 03, 2013
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11
Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 4 (1): 11 - 17, 2011 ISSN: 2141 4238© Wilolud Journals, 2011http://www.wiloludjournal.com ` Printed in NigeriaTHE ANTINOCICEPTIVE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT OF
 Amblygonocarpusandogensis
IN ALBINO RATSH .Ighodaro¹ and S.O Bello²¹Department of Clinical Pharmacy,UsmanuDanfodiyo University,Sokoto.
2
Department of Pharmacology andToxicology,Usmanu Danfodiyo University,Sokoto.ABSTRACT
 Amblygonocarpus andogensis
is a perennial plant commonly used in Nigeria traditional medicine for thetreatment of pain, particularly body and joint pains. However, little scientific evidence exists in literature on theantinociceptive property of this plant.Furthermore; current analgesics being used in the treatment of pain havenumerous undesirable side effects. There is therefore the need for further research for new analgesics acting onnew pain receptors. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activity of the aqeousstem bark extract of 
 Amblygonocarpus andogensis
in Albino rats.The acetic acid induced abdominal constriction test and the Formalin-induced paw licking test methods wereused for the pain evaluation. In the acetic acid induced abdominal constriction test, the method used was thatdescribed by Koster
et al
(1959) as modified by Amos
et al
2002. A total of 20 rats were divided into two sets of two groups of rats with one control group; with n=4. The first set was pre-treated with the extract at 100 and 200mg/kg p.o; with pre-treatment time of 30 min. The second set was similarly treated but with a pre-treatment timeof 60 min. Each group was administered 10ml/kg intra peritoneal(i.p) of an aqueous solution of acetic acid(0.7%). The rats were then held upward and the number of abdominal constriction for each rat counted for 10min immediately after treatment with acetic acid. The observer of the abdominal constriction was blinded to theexact treatment the animal received. The control group was given normal saline for pre-treatment and comparedwith the extract treated groups. The % inhibitions of abdominal constrictions for the extract treated groups werecalculated. The Formalin test used was similar to that described by Dubusson and Dennis (1977) and modifiedby Tjolsen
et al
(1992). Three groups of rats weighing between 100-160g consisting of 4 rats per group werepre-treated as follows:Group one normal saline (acted as control)Group two was given 100mg/kg of extractGroup three was given 200mg/kg of extractThirty minutes after this treatment, they were administered 50µl of a 2.5% solution of formalin subcutaneouslyunder the plantar surface of the left hind-paw. They were then placed in an observation chamber and monitoredfor 1 hour, and the severity of pain was recorded based on the following pain score;(0)
 
Rat walked or stood firmly on infected paw.(1)
 
The infected paw was favoured or practically elevated.(2)
 
The infected paw was clearly lifted off the floor.(3)
 
The rat licked, chewed or shook the infected paw.The observer was blinded to the exact treatment the animal received.Antinociceptive effect was determined in two phases.(i)
 
The early phase been recorded during the first five minutes, while the late phase(ii)
 
Was recorded during the last 45 minutes with a 10min lag period in between both phases.The aqeous extract(200 and100mg/Kg) significantly and in a dose dependent manner reduced the nociceptioninduced by the acetic acid and in both the early and late phases of Formalin test (P<0.05). Acetic acid inducedwrithing is a model of visceral pain and is a highly sensitive and useful test for analgesic drug development butnot a selective pain test.Formalin test however is sensitive to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and othermild analgesics.The extract of 
 Amblygonocarpus andogensis
produced significant analgesic effect in bothphases of the Formalin pain test. This probably indicates that the analgesic effect of the extract was mediated byboth neurogenic and inflammatory mechanisms.
 
12
H .Ighodaro and S.O Bello: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 4 (1): 11 - 17, 2011KEY WORDS:Antinociception,acetic acid,formalin,
 Amblygonocarpus andogensis
.
 
INTRODUCTIONThe problem of pain sensations has been with man and has given cause for concern from time immemorial. Painitself is a difficult Science to study and the need to study it remains as long as there are pains, which we do notunderstand, and which are inadequately treated.These pains are indications of our ignorance about pain mechanisms and therapy. To achieve adequateunderstanding and treatment, there is need for further research into the phenomenon of pain. Furthermore,current analgesics being used in the treatment of pain have numerous undesirable side effects. There is thereforethe need for further research for new analgesics acting on new pain receptors such as PAR-2 (protease activatedreceptor) which is found in the skin, in joints and in the digestive system. AC 264613 peptide is an agonist of protease activated receptor, while F SLLRY is an antagonist.Several herbal agents have been known to exhibit analgesic properties. Such includes
 Alstonia boonie
, whosestem bark is used in traditional medicine for treating painful micturition and rheumatic conditions. The plant
 Erythrina senegalenses
was reported by Etkin (1997) to have some significant analgesic activity against theacetic acid induced abdominal constriction in mice. In line with this understanding, the plant
 Amblygonocarpandogensis
was assessed as a way of sourcing for possible useful and better analgesic agents.The word “Pain” is frequently used especially in research, to refer to a class of behaviours, which operate toprotect the organism from harm or to enlist aid in effecting relief. The behaviour may be a reflex withdrawal asin pulling one’s hand away from heat or it may be any of a number of physiological processes which accompanythe presumed experience of pain and are used as objective measures of it, such as changes in cardiac or bloodpressure, histamine production, or catecholamine levels. Such changes are considered to be operationaldefinitions of pain for experimental purposes, or for purposes of objective clinical evaluation and are referred toas pain response (Patrick, 1989).Another definition of pain is that given by the International Association for the study of pain (IASP) whichdefines it as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience association with actual or potential tissue damage,or described in terms of such damage. Most pain researchers and therapists have accepted this definition, whichis now used widely to qualify the meaning of the word pain (IASP 1986). The World Health Organization inrecognition of the immense value of herbal medicine to primary health care has advocated for the properidentification, sustainable exploitation, scientific development and appropriate utilization of herbal medicinewhich provides safe and effective remedies in Medicare. (Wambebe, 1998).Preliminary enquiry through local traditional herbal practitioners shows that the plant does have medicinalanalgesic properties worth investigating. Paul
et al
, (2000); (Patrick, 2001) described Andongensis as a tree withclear potential values. Rogger (2000) also described this plant as an economic tree. But above all, this plant hasa long standing history of analgesic as well as antipsychotic claim among the leading traditional medicalpractioners. Despite these claims; there is no documentation on the scientific validation of the plant. This isbecause traditional medicine in Africa is not codified but verbally passed unto apprentices as folk’s medicine(Ohaeri,1989). It was also discovered that the plant despite its useful medicinal values have been underinvestigated and very scanty information about it exist in literature. The present study was therefore intended tofill the highlighted vacuum .MATERIALS AND METHODSACETIC ACID-INDUCED ABDOMINAL CONSTRICTIONS IN ALBINO RATS.The method used was that described by Koster
et al
(1959) as modified by Amos
et al
2002. A total of 20 ratswere divided into two sets of two groups of rats with one control group; with n=4. The first set was pre-treatedwith the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o; with pre-treatment time of 30 min. The second set was similarlytreated but with a pre-treatment time of 60 min. Each group was administered 10ml/kg intra peritoneal(i.p.) of an aqueous solution of acetic acid (0.7%). The rats were then held upward and the number of abdominalconstriction for each rat counted for 10 min immediately after treatment with acetic acid. The observer of theabdominal constriction was blinded to the exact treatment the animal received. The control group was givennormal saline for pre-treatment and compared with the extract treated groups. The % inhibitions of abdominalconstrictions for the extract treated groups were calculated.
 
13
H .Ighodaro and S.O Bello: Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 4 (1): 11 - 17, 2011FORMALIN TEST IN RATSThe method used was similar to that described by Dubusson and Dennis (1977) and modified by Tjolsen
et al
 (1992). Three groups of rats weighing between 100-160g consisting of 4 rats per group were pre-treated asfollows:Group one normal saline (acted as control)Group two as given 100mg/kg of extractGroup three was given 200mg/kg of extractThirty minutes after this treatment, they were administered 50µl of a 2.5% solution of formalin subcutaneouslyunder the plantar surface of the left hind-paw. They were then placed in an observation chamber and monitoredfor 1 hour, and the severity of pain was recorded based on the following pain score;(4)
 
Rat walked or stood firmly on infected paw.(5)
 
The infected paw was favoured or practically elevated.(6)
 
The infected paw was clearly lifted off the floor.(7)
 
The rat licked, chewed or shook the infected paw.This method of scoring allows a graded determination of responses thus showing finer degrees of anti-nociception as opposed to the method in which only the time the animal spent licking the infected paw wasrecorded.The observer was blinded to the exact treatment the animal received.Antinociceptive effect was determined in two phases.(iii)
 
The early phase been recorded during the first five minutes, while the late phase(iv)
 
Was recorded during the last 45 minutes with a 10min lag period in between both phases.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONTABLE 1: ACETIC ACID INDUCED PAIN TEST IN ALBINO RATS______________________________________________________________________________GROUP DOSE NUMBER OF CONSTRICTIONS DURING;mg/kg 30min pretrt %inhibition 60minpretrt %inhibition______________________________________________________________________________Control - 112.25± 8.47 - 112.25 ± 8.47 -A. Andogensis 100 35.50 ± 4.27* 68.40 27.25 ± 2.56* 75.78A. Andogensis 200 14.50 ± 1.26* 87.11 15.50 ± 3.30* 86.22______________________________________________________________________________* P < 0.05TABLE 2: FORMALIN INDUCED PAIN TEST IN ALBINO RATSGROUP DOSEMg/kgPAIN SCOREControl
 A.
 
 Andogensis A. Andogensis
 ----1002003 31* 0*0* 0*

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