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Antennas In Satellite Communication

Antennas In Satellite Communication

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Published by: kalbande86 on Feb 26, 2009
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10/04/2014

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1
Antennas In Satellite Communication
Abstract
A satellite is anobjectwhich has been placed intoorbitbyhumanendeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites such as theMoon.Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In factthe antennas on board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on theground and various satellite sub-systems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal and transmit to downlink signals. In addition they provide single link for the satellitetelemetry, command and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude controlsubsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards theEarth coverage areas. The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.It should be remembered that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellitecommunication system since their gain values directly determine the amount of received power.
Types of antenna system use in satellite communication
Parabolic antenna
Horn Antenna
 Helical antennaPhased array
Applications
Broadcasting Navel UsagesSpace probe communicationWeather research usages
Introduction
A satellite is anobjectwhich has been placed intoorbitbyhumanendeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites such as theMoon.
A full size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2
Govt. Poly. Amravati
 
2
Antennas In Satellite Communication
History of artificial satellites:
The first artificial satellite wasSputnik 1,launched by theSoviet Unionon 4 October  1957, and initiating theSoviet Sputnik program, withSergei Korolevas chief designer and Kerim Kerimovas his assistant. This in turn triggered theSpace Racebetween theSoviet Unionand theUnited States.Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of highatmospheric layersthroughmeasurement of its orbital change and provided data onradio-signal distribution in theionosphere. Because the satellite's body was filled with pressurizednitrogen,
Sputnik 1
also provided the first opportunity for meteoroiddetection, as a loss of internal pressure due tometeoroid penetration of the outer surface would have been evident in the temperature datasent back to Earth. The unanticipated announcement of 
Sputnik 1' 
s success precipitated theSputnik crisisin theUnited Statesand ignited the so-calledSpace Racewithin theCold War .
was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit,adognamedLaika. In May, 1946,Project RANDhad released thePreliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentationcan be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. TheUnited Stateshad been considering launchingorbitalsatellites since 1945 under theBureau of Aeronauticsof theUnited States Navy. TheUnited States Air Force's Project RAND eventually released the above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a potentialmilitary weapon; rather, they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda.In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, "I know of no American satellite program."
Govt. Poly. Amravati
 
3
Antennas In Satellite CommunicationOn July 29, 1955, theWhite Houseannounced that the U.S. intended to launchsatellites by the spring of 1958. This became known asProject Vanguard. On July 31, theSoviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.Following pressure by theAmerican Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and theInternational Geophysical Year , military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working onProject Orbiter , which involved using aJupiter C rocketto launch a satellite. The project succeeded, andExplorer 1became the United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the Air Force usedresources of theUnited States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-orbitingsatellites.The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is theInternational Space Station.
Antenna System
Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In fact the antennason board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on the ground andvarious satellite sub-systems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal andtransmit to downlink signals. In addition they provide single link for the satellite telemetry,command and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude control subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards the Earth coverage areas.The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage. It should beremembered that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellite communicationsystem since their gain values directly determine the amount of received power.
Some Basic things
Bandwidth, Beamwidth, and Polarization
 Bandwidth, beamwidth,
and
 polarization
are three important terms dealing.respectively with the operating frequency range, the degree of concentration or the radiation pattern, and the space orientation of the radiated waves.
Bandwidth
 The term bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies the antenna will reflecteffectively; i.e., the antenna will
 perform satisfactorily
throughout is size of frequencies.When the antenna power drops to ½(3 dB), the upper and lower extremities of thesefrequencies have been reached and the antenna no longer 
 perform satisfactorily.
Govt. Poly. Amravati

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