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40 CapacityCon (ISCHIA2005)

40 CapacityCon (ISCHIA2005)

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Published by guido gentile

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Published by: guido gentile on Mar 05, 2009
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 Natale Papola, Francesco Filippi, Guido Gentile, Lorenzo Meschini
 Dipartimento di Idraulica Trasporti e Strade, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”
We propose in this paper a new approach for modelling congested transitnetworks with fixed timetables where it may happen that there is not enoughroom onboard to allow all users waiting for a given line on the arrivingcarrier, so that passengers need to queue at the stop until the service becomesactually available to them.The traditional approach to reproduce this phenomenon within theestablished framework of diachronic graphs, where the supply is representedthrough a space-time network, is to introduce volume-delay functions for waiting arcs, which are meant to discourage passengers from boardingovercrowded carriers. However, this produces a distortion on the cost pattern, since passengers who achieve boarding do not suffer any additionalcost, and may also cause numerical instability.To overcome these limitations we extend to the case of scheduledservices an existing Dynamic Traffic Assignment model, allowing for explicit capacity constraints and FIFO queue representation, where theequilibrium is formulated as a fixed point problem in terms of flow temporal profiles.The proposed model propagates time-continuous flows of passengers onthe pedestrian network and time-discrete point-packets of passengers on theline network. To this end, the waiting time pattern, corresponding to a givenflow temporal profile of pedestrians who reach a stop to ride a certain line,
 Natale Papola, Francesco Filippi, Guido Gentile, Lorenzo Meschini
has a saw-tooth temporal profile such to concentrate passengers on thescheduled runs, while satisfying the constraint that the number of boardingusers must not be higher than the onboard residual capacities.An MSA algorithm is also devised, whose efficiency is tested on theregional transit network of Rome.
The pricing and rationing measures applied to discourage the use of  private cars, in order to alleviate the increasing road congestion and theconsequent worsening pollution, are not always coupled with a consistent policy aimed at improving the performances, or at least the capacity, of thetransit system. As a result, in many modern cities the problem of full transitcarriers is becoming more and more relevant, both for the urban system andfor the regional system used by commuters. Although this situation should be avoided through a correct design of the transit network by suitablyincreasing the line capacities, it is still important to properly simulate thecurrent scenario in order to justify the resources needed to carry outappropriate interventions.The
static assignment models commonly used to plantransit networks are suited to represent urban systems (metro, tramways, busses) where the service is so irregular or so frequent that there is no pointfor passenger to synchronize their arrivals at the stop with the scheduledtime of carriers, if any is published. In this context it is generally assumedthat a passenger, once reached a stop, waits for the first attractive carrier among some common lines. This leads to the concept of 
optimal strategy
 (Spiess and Florian, 1989) which can be formally expressed in terms of ashortest
(Nguyen and Pallottino, 1988). On the contrary, in extra-urban systems (aeroplanes, trains, coaches) and in general when thefrequency is so low that the timetables must be known in order to make theservice usable, passengers reach the stop with the intension of travelling on aspecific run of a specific transit line. To represent this choice or whenever we want to obtain from the transit assignment the loads and the performances of each single run – a detail which is highly desirable whendesigning the service exercise – a
approach is needed.For a detailed analysis of the literature on schedule-based transitassignment we refer the reader to the recent book of Nuzzolo
et al.
(2003)and to the selection, edited by Wilson and Nuzzolo (2004), of contributions presented at the First Workshop on Schedule-based approach in DynamicTransit Modelling (SBDTM). The most natural and well establishedmodelling approach involves the representation of transit supply, which is
 Natale Papola, Francesco Filippi, Guido Gentile, Lorenzo Meschini
intrinsically discrete in time, as a
diachronic graph
(Nuzzolo and Russo,1993), where each run is modelled through a specific sub-graph whose nodeshave space and time coordinates according to the timetable. As analternative, it is possible to define a
dual graph
(Nielsen and Jovicic, 1999),where each run section is a node, while the arcs represent the connections atstops satisfying temporal consistency. A third approach, referred to as
mixed line-database
, is to describe the topology of the transit network through agraph analogous to that used in the static assignment, and to characterize itsarcs with the information relative to the timetable (Tong and Wong, 1999;Hickman and Bernstein, 1997; Nielsen, 2000).In this paper, we will develop a new approach that resembles to a certainextent the latter and consists in extending to the simulation of scheduledservices an existing Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) model based on amacroscopic representation of time-continuous flows. This is specified inBellei
et al.
(2005) for road networks and in Gentile
et al.
(2003) for multimodal networks, where the transit system is described in terms of linefrequency temporal profiles, which allows representing the average effect of time-discrete services on the travel cost pattern. Here, we will introduce anappropriate arc performance function, yielding saw-tooth temporal profilesof the waiting times that concentrate passengers on the scheduled runs. Thisway the network loading map will propagate, accordingly with a logit routechoice model, time-discrete point-packets on the line network and time-continuous flows on the pedestrian network. The task of spreading on the pedestrian network the point-packets travelling on the line network isconferred to the alighting arcs.One of the open questions in transit assignment is how to comply withvehicle capacity constraints, that may induce the formation and dispersion of queues at stops, where passengers wait for the first run of the chosen lineactually available to them. The traditional approach to reproduce thiscongestion phenomenon in a static framework is based on the concept of 
effective frequency
(DeCea and Fernandez, 1993), stating that the linefrequency perceived by the passengers waiting at a stop decreases as the probability of not boarding its first arriving carrier increases. Since theresidual capacity of a run available to passengers waiting at the stop dependson the amount of those already onboard, who do not suffer the cost of queuing, then to apply properly the effective frequency approach anasymmetric arc cost function is to be introduced as in Bellei
et al.
(2003). Adifferent approach is proposed in Kurauchi
et al.
(2003), where passengers
on the platform (that is no FIFO rule holds in the queue), while fail-to-board arcs and probabilities are introduced to discard the flow exceedingthe line capacity.A similar approach to that of effective frequency is adopted in schedule-

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