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Temperature& Pressure Measurement

Temperature& Pressure Measurement

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Published by Mahmoud Megahed

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Published by: Mahmoud Megahed on Mar 26, 2013
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Cairo UniversityFaculty of EngineeringMechanical Power Department
Pre-Master (Fall 2012)
Temperature and Pressure measurement
Name Mohamed Karam Ali Hassan FayedB.N.
Submitted to
Tharwat Abo Arab
The word temper was used in the seventeenth century to describe the quality of steel. It seems,after the invention of crude from of thermometer, the word temperature was coined todescribe the degree of hotness or coolness of a material body. It was the beginning of seventeenth century when the thermometer ʹ a temperature measuring instrument was firstdeveloped. Galileo Galilei is credited with the construction of first thermometer, although aDutch scientist Drebbel also made similar instrument independently. The principle was simple.A bulb containing air with long vertical tube was inverted and dipped into a basin of water orcoloured liquid. With the change in temperature of the bulb, the gas inside expanded orcontracted, thus changing the level of the liquid column inside the vertical tube. A majordrawback of the instrument was that it was sensitive not only to variation of temperature, butalso to atmospheric pressure variation.Successive developments of thermometers came out throughout seventeenth and eighteenthcentury. The liquid thermometer was developed during this time. The importance of tworeference fixed temperatures was felt while graduating the temperature scales. Boiling point of water and melting point of ice provided two easily available references. But some otherreferences were also tried. Fahrenheit developed a thermometer where, it seems, temperatureof ice and salt mixture was taken as 0°Fand temperature of human body as 96°F. These two formed the reference points, with which, the temperature of melting ice came as32°and that of boiling water as 212°. In Celsius scale, the melting point of ice was chosen as 0°and boiling point of water as 100°. The concept of Kelvin scale came afterwards, where the absolute temperature of gas wastaken as 0° and freezing point of water as 273°The purpose of early thermometers was to measure the variation of atmospheric or bodytemperatures. With the advancement of science and technology, now we require temperaturemeasurement over a wide range and different atmospheric conditions, and that too with highaccuracy and precision. To cater these varied requirements, temperature sensors based ondifferent principles have been developed. They can be broadly classified in the followinggroups:1. Liquid and gas thermometer
2. Bimetallic strip3. Resistance thermometers (RTD and Thermistors)4. Thermocouple5. Junction semiconductor sensor6. Radiation pyrometerWithin the limited scope of this course, we shall discuss few of the above mentionedtemperature sensors, that are useful for measurement in industrial environment.

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