APUSH Unit XThe Challenge to America1941-1945By: Michael Kraft (1-3), Adam Stark (4-6), Brian Reitz (7-9), Eric May (10-12), Demi Adejuyigbe (13-15),Ragini Mistry (16-18), Saud Ahmed (19-21), Tiffany Shieh (22-24), Tom Caligiuri (25-27), Justin (28-30),Charles Basile (31-33), Igor Kushner (34-36), Nikhil (37-39), Michelle Samadzada (40-42), Max Glover (43-45), Gokul Mani (46-47), Chris Russell (48-49)*disclaimer*- There may be errors in this review. If you think something’s wrong, we suggest you look itup. This is shared with others with the current understanding that it cannot be used to cheat in any way.We do not authorize this review to be used for cheating of any kind.
Joseph Stalin- Communist leader of the Soviet Union, called the "Man of Steel". He cameto power by killing Leon Trotsky. The Soviet Union was a member of the Nazi-SovietNonaggression Pact, but became Germany's enemy when Hitler invaded in 1941.German advances were stopped and reversed at Stalingrad.
Benito Mussolini- The nationalistic and fascist leader of Italy, called 'Il Duce'. He stressedloyalty to the state after he came to power. He was elected to the house of representatives, then used a military takeover to become ruler. He was very incompetentand ended up ruining Italy's economy.
Adolf Hitler- The nationalistic, fascist, and autocratic leader of Germany. Wrone 'MeinKamph' while in prison. He was legally appointed chancellor, after which he used theEnabling Act of 1933 to legally consolidate his power. He killed off political enemies in theNight of the Long Knives. He left the League of Nations, remilitarized the Rhineland,annexed Austria (called the Anschluss), took the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, thentook all of Czechoslovakia, then invaded Poland. This final act started WWII. Employedblitzkrieg tactics committed suicide at the end of the war.4.Nazi Party - The National Socialist German Worker's Party, it existed from 1919 to 1945.The final leader of the party, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor in 1933 (legally) andquickly established a fascist government known as the Third Reich. Nazi Party beliefsstressed the problems and faliure of capitalism. They also believed in the racial purity of the German people, who they referred to as Aryans (blond hair, blue eyes.) They alsopersecuted those who they deemed unworthy of life, ex: Jews, Gypsies, homosexualsetc. On the politcal axis, they are the complete opposite of communism.5.Rome-Berlin Axis - Used to refer to the friendship treaty signed by Italy and Germany in1936. It was said this axis would be the one that all other European nations wouldrevolve. This relationship was strengthened in 1939 when Germany and Italy signed thePact of Steel. The term "axis powers" was created when the two countries signed theTripartite Pact with Japan.6.Emperor Hirohito - Similar to the Queen of England, he was more a symbol of the statethan an actual ruler. Was emperor of Japan during World War II, The decisions that led tothe war in 1941 were made unanimously by the cabinet, the emperor was fully informedabout them, they were often made in his presence, he knew in advance of the plan toattack Hawaii, and he even made suggestions about how to carry it out. Reigned inJapan until 1989, when he died.
Hideki Tojo- a General of the Japanese army and a strong supporter of Nazi Germany,Tojo lead a group of extreme right-wing militarists. Tojo was appointed the Japaneseminister of war in July 1941 and retained that position until he resigned after the loss of Saipan in July 19448.Francisco Franco- an established General in the Spanish army and the leader of theFascist rebellion in Spain, Franco successfully took control of the Spanish government.He maintained this control after World War II and established a diplomatic relationshipwith America over mutual distrust of the Soviet Union.