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Unit 10 Review

Unit 10 Review

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Published by gynecologistcobra
Review for Unit 10 of APUSH.
Review for Unit 10 of APUSH.

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Published by: gynecologistcobra on Mar 24, 2009
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APUSH Unit XThe Challenge to America1941-1945By: Michael Kraft (1-3), Adam Stark (4-6), Brian Reitz (7-9), Eric May (10-12), Demi Adejuyigbe (13-15),Ragini Mistry (16-18), Saud Ahmed (19-21), Tiffany Shieh (22-24), Tom Caligiuri (25-27), Justin (28-30),Charles Basile (31-33), Igor Kushner (34-36), Nikhil (37-39), Michelle Samadzada (40-42), Max Glover (43-45), Gokul Mani (46-47), Chris Russell (48-49)*disclaimer*- There may be errors in this review. If you think something’s wrong, we suggest you look itup. This is shared with others with the current understanding that it cannot be used to cheat in any way.We do not authorize this review to be used for cheating of any kind.
1.
Joseph Stalin- Communist leader of the Soviet Union, called the "Man of Steel". He cameto power by killing Leon Trotsky. The Soviet Union was a member of the Nazi-SovietNonaggression Pact, but became Germany's enemy when Hitler invaded in 1941.German advances were stopped and reversed at Stalingrad.
2.
Benito Mussolini- The nationalistic and fascist leader of Italy, called 'Il Duce'. He stressedloyalty to the state after he came to power. He was elected to the house of representatives, then used a military takeover to become ruler. He was very incompetentand ended up ruining Italy's economy.
3.
Adolf Hitler- The nationalistic, fascist, and autocratic leader of Germany. Wrone 'MeinKamph' while in prison. He was legally appointed chancellor, after which he used theEnabling Act of 1933 to legally consolidate his power. He killed off political enemies in theNight of the Long Knives. He left the League of Nations, remilitarized the Rhineland,annexed Austria (called the Anschluss), took the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, thentook all of Czechoslovakia, then invaded Poland. This final act started WWII. Employedblitzkrieg tactics committed suicide at the end of the war.4.Nazi Party - The National Socialist German Worker's Party, it existed from 1919 to 1945.The final leader of the party, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor in 1933 (legally) andquickly established a fascist government known as the Third Reich. Nazi Party beliefsstressed the problems and faliure of capitalism. They also believed in the racial purity of the German people, who they referred to as Aryans (blond hair, blue eyes.) They alsopersecuted those who they deemed unworthy of life, ex: Jews, Gypsies, homosexualsetc. On the politcal axis, they are the complete opposite of communism.5.Rome-Berlin Axis - Used to refer to the friendship treaty signed by Italy and Germany in1936. It was said this axis would be the one that all other European nations wouldrevolve. This relationship was strengthened in 1939 when Germany and Italy signed thePact of Steel. The term "axis powers" was created when the two countries signed theTripartite Pact with Japan.6.Emperor Hirohito - Similar to the Queen of England, he was more a symbol of the statethan an actual ruler. Was emperor of Japan during World War II, The decisions that led tothe war in 1941 were made unanimously by the cabinet, the emperor was fully informedabout them, they were often made in his presence, he knew in advance of the plan toattack Hawaii, and he even made suggestions about how to carry it out. Reigned inJapan until 1989, when he died.
7.
Hideki Tojo- a General of the Japanese army and a strong supporter of Nazi Germany,Tojo lead a group of extreme right-wing militarists. Tojo was appointed the Japaneseminister of war in July 1941 and retained that position until he resigned after the loss of Saipan in July 19448.Francisco Franco- an established General in the Spanish army and the leader of theFascist rebellion in Spain, Franco successfully took control of the Spanish government.He maintained this control after World War II and established a diplomatic relationshipwith America over mutual distrust of the Soviet Union.
 
9.Spanish Civil War- From 1936-1939, a coup d’état in which a fascist group, supported byGermany and Italy, ousted the left leaning republican government, which was supportedby the Soviet Union. It served as a proxy war in which German arms, weapons, andtactics were being battle tested. During this war, America retained it’s neutral foreignpolicy, disregarding the fact that many Americans traveled to Spain to fight.
10.
Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during WWI and was theleader in English politics at that time. During his time he took many military matters intohis own hands and was highly Pro-WWII. He worked in part with Franklin D. Roosevelt todefeat Germany in such policies including the Lend Lease which allowed Britain to order war goods from the United States on credit. One of the major contributions made byChurchill to eventual victory was his ability to inspire the British people to rally their effortsby making public broadcasts similar to Roosevelt’s fireside chats.11.Good Neighbor Policy – The foreign policy name used for Roosevelt’s administration inregards to Latin American nations. In its ideal it pushed for friendly relations with itsneighboring countries in a conflict with the caliber as WWII had become. This changedthe normal policy which usually consisted of military force, and instead began to usemore indirect tactics such as financial supervision and support for an American influencedstyle of government.12.Neutrality Acts – Came into effect due to an increase in need for isolation in foreignconflict. The laws passed between 1935-1939 severely hindered the United States inhelping the British war effort against Germany. Eventually they all were repealed inresponse to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.
13.
“Quarantine” speech -
Oct. 5
th
, 1937 - A speech given by President Franklin DelanoRoosevelt that called for a policy of neutrality against aggressive nations.
14.
“cash and carry”
- The policy put forth by the United States saying that anyone wouldbe allowed to purchase weapons from them, provided that they paid with cash, and theytransported the weapons themselves. This protected American ships from being sunk.
15.
Lend-Lease Act
- The act that allowed the United States to give war materials to foreigncountries in exchange for goods and/or services.16.Atlantic Charter- The Atlantic Charter was a document announced by Churchill andRoosevelt that laid out eight goals for the world (open trade, economic cooperation,freedom of the seas, no territorial gains were to be sought by the US or Great Britain,disarmament of aggressors, trade barriers lowered, freedom from want and fear, andterritorial adjustments based upon the people concerned). It called for self determinationand was aimed at freeing the countries under Axis influence.17.America First Committee- It was a non-interventionist group that was against US entryinto WWII. It peaked at 800,000 members. It had four basic principles: build up thedefense of America, no power can successfully attack a prepared America, Americandemocracy can only be preserved if the US stays out of the war, and US aid to Eurocountries weakens America and threatens to get the US involved in the war.18.Douglass MacArthur- He was an American general who played an important role in thePacific theater of WWII. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, he was the Allied commander in the Philippines and his inaction led to Japanese air superiority over the Philippines. Hewas later forced of retreat to Australia. In 1944, he returned to the Philippines and retookthe islands from Japanese control. On Sept 2 1945, he accepted the formal Japanesesurrender aboard the Missouri officially ending WWII.
19.
Chester Nimitz-Navy--Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet ("CinCPac").Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CinCPOA), Both Navy positions duringWWII.Leading US submarine Athority, and Chief of ’39 Navy Beureau Of Investigation.Responsible for the halt of Japanese forces in the Pacific Theater.
20.
Dwight Eisenhower-Army--34
th
President. Five Star General in US Army. SupremeCommander of the invasion of Germany and France (AKA D-Day) that proved successful.Also oversaw the invasion of Sicily, and consequently, the Italian mainland. 1
st
SupremeCommander of NATO.
 
21.George Patton- Army--Very controversial 4-star general. Known for strong opinions.Advocated armored warfare. Sent rescue mission deep into enemy lines for son in POWcamp-failed. Slapped a soldier in a hospital recovering from “fatigue”, was well publicized,resulted in Roosevelt dismissing him from duty.22.Robert Oppenheimer- is remembered as the father of the atomic bomb. Was also atheoretical physicists and also a professor of physics.23.Manhattan Project-was a project in order to first develop the atomic bomb. Specificallybetween the time period of 1942-1946 under the U.S Army of Corps Engineer and wasdirected by Robert Oppenheimer.
24.
Casablanca Conference-(codenamed
SYMBOL
) was held at the Anfa Hotel inCasablanca, Morocco. Called for the Allies to seek the unconditional surrender of theAxis Powers. It also called for Allied aid to the Soviet Union in the invasion of Sicily andItaly, and the recognition of joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud.25.Teheran Conference- Meeting in late 1943 between the Big Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, andChurchill). Was the first meeting of the three in which Stalin attended. They met todetermine the final strategy for the war.26.Potsdam Conference- Held in Potsdam, Germany from July 16 to August 2, 1945. Agreedon post war order, most notably the division of Germany and it's capital, Berlin, into four occupational zones, one each for the Soviet Union, the United States, Great Britain, andFrance.27.Pearl Harbor- December 7, 1941. A surprise attack on the naval base in Hawaii, wastechnically before a formal declaration of war reached the White House, but not beforethe declaration was planned to be delivered. Roosevelt used this attack as one of theprimary reasons for entering the war.
28.
Midway-Battle of Midway- major naval battle; TheUnited States Navy decisively defeated anImperial Japanese Navy(IJN) attack againstMidway Atoll,inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force and seizing the strategic initiative29.Island Hopping- US military strategy of invading and taking over a Japanese Island,setting up a base there to take over the next island, invading the next island, and so onuntil Japanese islands in the South Pacific were conquered by US forces
30.
Eastern Front- the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by Germany to the west and theAllies(Russia) to the east31.Western Front- Term for the conflict between Germany and the western Allies: France,the United Kingdoms, and later the United States. Conflict on this front began in 1939with the invasion of Poland and ended in 1945 with the surrender of Germany. This frontsaw the first usage of blitzkrieg, which combined with the over devotion of forces to theMaginot line, a series of fortresses stretching the border between Germany and France,led to the swift defeat of the French army when German forces went around the Maginotline through Belgium. Forces deployed here comprised an estimated 45% of all Axisforces in Europe, and became stagnant when the German air assault on the UnitedKingdoms failed to result in either side gaining an advantage. The Allied forces receiveda large boon in December of 1941, when the United States declared war on Japan andits allies, Germany and Italy.32.D Day- Allied assault on the beaches at Normandy, began June 6, 1944 and involvedmassive mobilization with a large air force parachuting and gliding in during the nightconcurrent with air raids and naval bombardment and the amphibious landings whichbegan early in the morning. The assault on Normandy involved assaults on 5 beaches:Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.33.V-E Day & V-J Day- V-E Day, or Victory in Europe Day, is May 8, 1945 when Germanysurrendered, in response to the capture of Berlin and the suicide of Adolph Hitler. V-J Dayor Victory over Japan Day, is August 15, 1945 when Japan finally surrendered inresponse to the dropping of the atomic bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasakiand invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Union.
34.
War Production Board- The WBP was a U.S. government agency that oversaw theproduction and distribution of materials and equipment used by the military in World War 

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