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Urea Final Report

Urea Final Report

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Published by: waqas on Mar 28, 2009
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 Comprehensive design project
Group Members:
G.A.M.C. Ariyathilaka 050029PA.N. Buddhika 050050VK.R.M.G. Kahatapitiya 050192GK.D.N. Karunarathna 050206GD.D.D.P.Sandasiri 050404L
Project Coordinator:
Dr. Maneesha Gunasekara
UREA MANUFACTURINGPLANT
CH 4200
Comprehensive Design Project
 
Urea Manufacturing PlantComprehensive design project
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all we would like to grant our heartiest gratitude to our project coordinator,Dr. Maneesha Gunasekara (lecturer- Chemical & Process Engineering department, University of Moratuwa) for all the guidance and support that she has given us to complete this design projectin a successful manner. Dear Madam, please expect our sincere thanks for your kind heartedsupport and genuine friendly attitude shown towards our work. Thank you very much forspending your precious time to share your knowledge & experience with us.Then again, we must not forget all the staff members of Chemical & Process Engineeringdepartment, including the head of the department Dr. Jagath Premachandra , for all the assistanceand support given us for accomplish the project. Without your support we may have not comethis far, so please accept our sincere thanks .Also we thank the level-4, semester-1 coordinator,Dr. Suren Wijekoon, lecturer- Chemical & Process Engineering Department, University of Moratuwa. And finally, a special thank should be given to the staff of Sri Lanka Custom Officewho provide us data related to urea imports.Thank you,G.A.M.C. AriyathilakaA.N. Buddhika.K.R.M.G. KahatapitiyaK.D.N. KarunarathnaD.D.D.P.Sandasiri
 
Urea Manufacturing PlantComprehensive design project
II
PREFACE
The final year project is task, where we apply our knowledge & experience, gained throughoutthe four year degree course, in a practical scenario. Here we have done it in our best capacity. Itis a step which finally determines the capability to perform as chemical engineers.The ultimate goal of the final year design project on
urea manufacturing plant 
is tofind out the feasibility of setting up such a plant in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka urea is being used asa fertilizer in the agriculture sector. Other than as a fertilizer, urea is hardly used in any industryor any other sector even though urea has number of industrial and commercial uses. Sri Lankaimports urea from other countries such as Saudi Arabia, India, and China. The total importvolume of urea is around 330,000 MT per annum. Sri Lankan government gives urea fertilizer insubsidized price for farmers. From the budget 2008, Sri Lanka allocated 15 billion rupees forfertilizer subsidies.However in the past with the establishment of The Urea Plant at Sapugaskanda, SriLanka became self sufficient in fertilizer requirements of the country. In 1982, the annualproduction of urea at Sapugaskanda factory was 310,000 tons. Then the country's annual demandwas only 290,000 tons. The excessive production of 20,000 tons of urea was exported earningforeign exchange around Rs. 200 million. In 1982 the annual savings of State FertilizerCorporation stood at Rs.750 million. In addition it had provided direct employment opportunitiesto 1,250 workers. Sapugaskanda Urea plant was closed in January 1987.In the world point of view urea is produced on a scale of some 100,000,000 tons peryear worldwide. Urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urea can beproduced as prills, granules, flakes, pellets, crystals, and solutions. More than 90% of worldproduction is destined for use as a fertilizer. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solidnitrogenous fertilizers in common use (46.7%).Urea is highly soluble in water and is, therefore,also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions. Solid urea is marketed as prills or granules. Theadvantage of prills is that, in general, they can be produced more cheaply than granules, which,because of their narrower particle size distribution, have an advantage over prills if appliedmechanically to the soil.In Sri Lanka establishing urea manufacturing plant has many advantages. It will
have greater effect on country‟s economy, development in agriculture sector, providing
employment and other tangible and intangible benefits. But without having an ammonia

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