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APA Format and Citation Style Guide

APA Format and Citation Style Guide

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Published by CA T He
APA style or the American Psychological Association style is a guide for writing research papers, essays, and is accepted in the science field.
APA style or the American Psychological Association style is a guide for writing research papers, essays, and is accepted in the science field.

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Published by: CA T He on Apr 25, 2013
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Style GuidesAPA Format
T
T
ITLE
P
AGE
 
T
A
BSTRACT
 
Psychology of Codes 1 Running head: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CODES The Psychology of Western Military Codes John Q. CipherUtah Valley State CollegeDr. Simon GilmorePsychology 4890
R
UNNING
H
EAD
 
The running head is anabbreviated title on the top leftof the title page. It should be lessthan 50 characters
.
S
TANDARD
F
ORMAT
 
Double space, and use 12-pointTimes New Roman font on allpages of the paper.
A
UTHOR
I
NFORMATION
 
The coversheet should state yourname and institution. It may alsoinclude your class andinstructor’s name. Do notunderline or use bold or italics.
M
ARGINS
 
Margins should be 1-inchall around and on all pagesof the paper.
F
ULL
T
ITLE
 
A title should clearly state themain topic in 10 to 12 words.Abbreviations are notappropriate. The title
 
shouldbe centered.
P
AGE
H
EADER
 
A page header includes 2 or 3words of the title followed byabout 4 or 5 spaces and thepage number. Headers shouldappear in the
 
top
 
right cornerof every
 
page.
 
Psychology of Codes 2 AbstractCodes have been used for thousands of years. While “codes” is ageneral term that is acceptable to describe all kinds of hiddenmeanings, really there are two important concepts to know. Acipher mixes the letters themselves, while a code mixes up themessage on a word level. Although codes were originallydeveloped for military purposes, civilians have borrowed encodingtechniques for a wide variety of purposes including love letters andcomputer languages.
A
BSTRACT
 
The abstract sums up yourpaper’s purpose and content in120 words or less. It includes
 
important information such asthe thesis and main ideas.Abbreviations and
 
unique termsshould also be defined. It shouldbe in your own words and as
 
brief as possible.
A
BSTRACT
T
ITLE
 
The word “Abstract” should becentered, without underlining,italics, bold, or punctuation.
 
Style GuidesAPA Format
T
F
IRST
P
AGE OF
T
EXT
 
T
T
EXT
 
Psychology of Codes 3  The Psychology of Western Military Codes Throughout world history, military codes have been used bynearly all civilizations. This paper will explore some of thepsychology behind codes used by the west’s militaries and how theyaided in warfare. The ability to decipher the code of the enemy enabled the alliesto get the upper hand in WWII. American historian Thomas Powers(2001) wrote the following: The American ability to read Japanese cables, code- namedMagic, was one of the small advantages that helped the Allieswin time and then the war. Another was the British ability toread the German military communications enciphered with theEnigma machine
,
code-named Ultra. (p. 2)If it had not been for this secret coding, perhaps the outcome of thesecond World War would have been dramatically different. Yet it
B
LOCK
Q
UOTATIONS
 
Quotations that are 40 words orlonger need to be set apart in ablock. They should be doublespaced and indented 1/2” fromthe left margin. Quotationmarks are not used with blockquotations, and the finalpunctuation is placed before thein-text citation.
T
ITLE
 The title should be centeredand double spaced at the top ofthe page. It should not beitalicized, underlined, orbolded.
Psychology of Codes
 
6
 
Since the information unveiled was so critical, the cryptoanalystsliterally saved the day.Victorian EnglandIn Victorian England, strict parents made it hard for lovers tocommunicate with each other. “Lovers would have to invent theirown ciphers, which they used to publish notes in newspapers”(Wilson, 1987, p. 115).
Charles Babbage’s Contribution
Charles Babbage loved to read the paper and try to solve thecodes. Once, he saw a message from a student inviting hisgirlfriend to elope. Babbage wrote in their code and advised themnot to act so rashly. The girl soon wrote and asked her boyfriendnot to write again because their code had been discovered (cited inFrank & Frank, 2001).Considering Babbage’s contribution to the development of the
H
EADINGS
 Headings help you organize thetext for readers. There are fivelevels of headings:
LEVEL 5: CENTERED UPPERCASELevel 1: Centered
Level 2: Centered, italicizedLevel 3: Flush left, italicizedLevel 4: Indented, italicized, followedby a period.
The text starts on thesame line as the heading.
If you need only one level ofheading, use level 1.For two levels, use 1 and 3.For three levels, use 1, 3, and 4.For 4 levels, use 1 through 4.For 5 levels, use 1 through 5.* This paper uses two headings,so levels 1 and 3 are used.
I
N
-T
EXT
C
ITATIONS
 
The basic format for an in-textcitation is (Last name ofauthor, year of publication,page number of quote). Whenparaphrasing or summarizingan idea, you are encouraged toinclude the page number butdo not have to. For help withciting specific sources, seepages 207-14 in the
 APAPublication Manual
5th ed.
 
C
ITING
S
ECONDARY
 
S
OURCES
 To cite information that yoursource has taken from adifferent source, put theoriginal author of theinformation in the text andwrite “cited in” in your in-textcitation followed by the authorand date of the work where thematerial was found.
 
Style GuidesAPA Format
T
R
EFERENCES
 G
UIDELINES FOR THE
R
EFERENCES
P
AGE
 
In addition to citing sources within a text, APA requires a
References
page. The following guidelines willhelp you correctly format some of the most commonly used sources. For further information, refer toChapter 4 of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
, 5
th
edition. Remember thefollowing as you cite sources for APA:
_
 
Article titles should not be italicized or put in quotation marks.
_
 
Only the first word of the article title, subtitle, or proper nouns should be capitalized.
B
OOK BY A
S
INGLE
A
UTHOR
 
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year).
Book title
. Location: Publisher.Wilson, F. R. (1998).
The hand: How its use shapes the brain, language, and human culture
. New York:Pantheon.
B
OOK BY
T
 WO OR
M
ORE
A
UTHORS
 
Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First initial.Middle initial. (Year).
Book title
. Location: Publisher.Mazzeo, J., Druesne, B., Raffeld, P. C., Checketts, K. T., & Muhlstein, A. (1991).
Comparability of computer and paper-and-pencil scores for two CLEP general examinations.
Princeton, NJ:Educational Testing Service.
N
OTE
: When there is more than one author, use an ampersand symbol (&) before the
last
author. If a reference has morethan six authors, use the first six authors’ names, and replace the seventh and subsequent authors with “et al.,” whichmeans “and others.”
Psychology of Codes 13 ReferencesAsay, R. (1978). How the Romans made war.
 Journal of MilitaryHistory
, 23, 345-357.Frank, S. & Frank, T. (2001).
 The man who invented the military.
 New York: Nerd Press.Powers, T., & Gregory, A. (1954).
 The psychological executioners
.London: Oxford UP.Wilson, F. (1987, May 5). Newspaper classifieds contain secretcodes.
Daily News
, pp. F1, F9.Zagar, R. (1998). Leaving Cambridge. In T. Roger (Ed.),
Rommel: The Man
(pp. 123-134). New York: Harcourt and Brace.
R
EFERENCES
P
AGE
T
ITLE
 
The title “References” should becentered but not underlined,italicized, bolded, or punctuated.
H
ANGING
I
NDENT
 
Use a hanging indent for theentries longer than one line.Indent 1/2’’ from the setmargins, after the first line ofeach entry.
A
LPHABETICAL
O
RDER
 
Arrange entries in alphabeticalorder by author’s last name.Use the author’s initials for thefirst and middle names.
R
EFERENCES
 List only the works you haveused, not everything you read.For help with citing differentsources, see the
 APAPublication Manual
, 5th ed.,p. 223-283.

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