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Assignment of Molecular Biology

Assignment of Molecular Biology

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Published by Nasir Hussain Faraz
Obectives types question of gene regulation in moleculer biology
Obectives types question of gene regulation in moleculer biology

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Published by: Nasir Hussain Faraz on Apr 03, 2009
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06/16/2009

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Assignment of Molecular BiologyTopic (Conceptual, s Question) 
By;
 
Nasir Hussain(PGB, M.Phil #05)Submitted To;Dr. Gulam Muhammad AliDr. Omar RashidMiss Farhat Nazeer
 
Plant Genomic & BiotechnologyNational University of Agricultural SciencesNational Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad.
 
1
 
Molecular Biology(Questions)
1.
In eukaryotes, many genes may have to interact with each other, requiring more interactingelements than can fit around a single promoter. How this physical limitation is overcomed?ANS:
Many structural genes respond to different cell signal and are regulated in integrated manner. Thelevel of expression of these genes (integral genes) is controlled by sensor genes.
Certain genes are regulated by cooperative bonding of regulatory protein.
The activity of regulators may also regulate.
Inn certain cases especially in this situation, the distant sites in chromosomes is used by regulators.Activators, repressor silence to regulate the gene expression
2.E.coli is able to use foods other than glucose in the absence of available glucose. The fallinglevels of glucose cause an increase in which important component?ANS: 
Glucose lowers the intracellular concentration of small molecules, cAMP. This molecule is theallosteric effecter for CAP. When glucose level is low than the cAMP levels increase and activate the lacgenes.
3.Consider a protein molecule. What kind of bonding force is primarily responsible for each othe following;A. The general shape of an alpha helix region of the protein?ANS:
Hydrogen bonding is mostly responsible for general shape of alpha helix region of protein. However certain other forces such as disulphide bonds between the cis residues also take part. Phophodiester interaction responsible for formation of S-S bonds.
B.
The fact that the side chains of amino acids such as alanine (R= -CH3) and leucine (R=-C4H9) tend to be buried deep inside a folded protein?ANS:
There is the hydrophobic interaction which causes of theses amino acids to bind to buried deep insidethe folder protein. When tertiary structure of the protein completes it arrange itself in such a manner thathydrophobic amino acids are kept inside of the hydrophilic amino acid surrounding them
 2
 
C.
The attachment of one amino acid to the next along a single peptide chain?ANS:
The bond which attaches new coming amino acids to the growing polypeptide is peptide bond, a strongcovalent bond.
4. Some viruses have ss RNA as their genetic material (Instead of ds DNA). There are two generalstrategies used by such RNA viruses for replicating;A.Ss RNA (That is, the viral RNA) → ds RNA → more ds RNA→ ss (viral) RNA.
B.
Ss RNA → RNA – DNA hybrid (ds, 1 strand of each) → ds DNA → ss (viral) RNA.IS there any logical difference between these two pathways, in term of information flow?ANS: 
In term of information flow to next generation there is no difference in above two pathways. Onlymode of action is different in both pathways as first directly flow into ds RNA and to ss RNA in nextreplication while second are involved in hybridization with ds DNA and then ss RNA in next replication
4.When tryptophan is present in the medium, the transcription of tryptophan producing genesin E.coli is stopped by a helix-turn-helix regulator. At what site this motif binds.ANS:
The trp gene is auto regulated, when cellular concentration of tryptophan become high, it binds to trprepressor with high affinity and form repressor-trp complex causing a conformational change in repressor.This change repressor than easily and tightly bind to operator region resulting in the modulation of itsfunction, here tryptophan act as co-repressor.
6.
How it is that transcription can induce positive super coils (over winding) in part of thetemplate? And which part of it? (Ignore other factors, such as topoisomerases).ANS:
The binding of enzyme (RNA polymerase) to the DNA template results in the local unwinding of DNA helix as its pushes its way between the strands of double helix, RNA polymerase creates positivesupercoils ahead of transcription site an negative supercoils behind it.
 3

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