In eukaryotes, many genes may have to interact with each other, requiring more interactingelements than can fit around a single promoter. How this physical limitation is overcomed?ANS:
Many structural genes respond to different cell signal and are regulated in integrated manner. Thelevel of expression of these genes (integral genes) is controlled by sensor genes.
Certain genes are regulated by cooperative bonding of regulatory protein.
The activity of regulators may also regulate.
Inn certain cases especially in this situation, the distant sites in chromosomes is used by regulators.Activators, repressor silence to regulate the gene expression
2.E.coli is able to use foods other than glucose in the absence of available glucose. The fallinglevels of glucose cause an increase in which important component?ANS:
Glucose lowers the intracellular concentration of small molecules, cAMP. This molecule is theallosteric effecter for CAP. When glucose level is low than the cAMP levels increase and activate the lacgenes.
3.Consider a protein molecule. What kind of bonding force is primarily responsible for each of the following;A. The general shape of an alpha helix region of the protein?ANS:
Hydrogen bonding is mostly responsible for general shape of alpha helix region of protein. However certain other forces such as disulphide bonds between the cis residues also take part. Phophodiester interaction responsible for formation of S-S bonds.
The fact that the side chains of amino acids such as alanine (R= -CH3) and leucine (R=-C4H9) tend to be buried deep inside a folded protein?ANS:
There is the hydrophobic interaction which causes of theses amino acids to bind to buried deep insidethe folder protein. When tertiary structure of the protein completes it arrange itself in such a manner thathydrophobic amino acids are kept inside of the hydrophilic amino acid surrounding them