desired directions. By creating a junction of a p and ntype semiconductor, an electrical potential is created. Theelectrons move from the n-type to the p-type. Meanwhile,the positively charged atoms move from the p-type to then-type. As a result, the n-type material gains a positivecharge and the p-type gains a negative charge. When anelectrical circuit connects the p-type and n-type ends,difference in electrical potential is created which results incurrent. Figure 2 shows the operation of photovoltaic cell.This type of cell can be manufactured in many differentways. A monocrystalline semi conductor is much like theideal type described above. It has a pure p type crystal placed on a pure n type semiconductor crystal. This typeof cell is the most efficient in terms of turning energy intoelectricity. But, it is expensive to manufacture because itis costly to produce large crystals of semiconductor material. A far more cost effective material to produce is polycrystalline cells. These consist of small grains of crystals randomly oriented to each other. Because thesmaller crystals, much easier to manufacture, are simply placed together it is much cheaper. However, energy islost as electrons must maneuver between the differentcrystals. This form of cells results in a lower efficiency.However, because it is the most economically efficient, itis used today. 
5.0 PROCESS TO DO AFP5.1 First step
In nature, photosynthesis is the process by which plantstake light, water, and carbon dioxide, and transform theminto energy and food. There are four main steps needed to be mimicked in order for AFP to work. First, a way toharvest the solar energy, or light from the sun, must befound. Currently, there seems to be two major rivaling processes: silicon technology versus organic photovoltaics. The latter refers to a process that wouldimitate the natural process by using material analogous tochlorophyll. Basically, this material would be a thingmembrane that captures the light and then passes the photons on to the next step. At the present, the silicontechnology produces up to 33% efficiency in convertingthe sun into electricity . This process basically usesmicro solar panels. Even though they have only beenable to reach as high as 8% with organic photovoltaics its potential efficiency is better than what can be done withsilicon technology. Indeed it is more efficient for lightabsorption to have these thin layers of organic photovoltaics, what better way to paint them on than witha digital fabrication technique such as a nano form of continuous deposition. The digital data would providethe accuracy needed for a uniform thickness whilefabbing the appropriate mixture of materials to mimicchlorophyll. This process of course would not becomeavailable until digital fabrication was able to perform onthe nanoscale.
5.2 Second Step
The second process needed to be mimicked is modifyingthe process by which the plant uses the photon to split thewater molecule into hydrogen and oxygen. Up untilrecently, attempts at replicating this process in thelaboratory had failed because it has to be extremely balanced in order to get the geometry just right. In anoriginal plant there is a “complex labyrinth of proteins toconduct the photons to a suitable centre where this crucialwater-splitting takes place . A recent breakthroughdiscovered the precise location and arrangement of molecules that made this water molecule location of justa few splitting possible. It is identified the precise criticalmolecules of manganese, oxygen and calcium within thecore of the plant’s photosynthesis engine where thewater-splitting is performed.Hence to perform this artificially there is a need tofabricate the whole environment on a chip which can bedone through nanotechnology. Fabricating the films and paths for the photons to pass through and follow is acrucial step before it reaches the core, but being able tofabricate perfect geometry of the core would beinvaluable which is known as “biomimetric” . Nanodigital fabrication would be a major break through on thislevel as can be seen by the advancement in theimplementation of AF that would takes place.
5.3 Third Step
The third step that needs to be mimicked is the “bio-energy” transfer that occurs because of ATP and NADPH, which has had slow progress. However, animportant protein in that process is Rubisco, whichactually waterproofs the reaction site which is selectivefor carbon dioxide. If that part of the protein which is