pump suction to the discharge. On the other hand, positive displacement uses the reciprocatingaction of one or several pistons, or a squeezing action of meshing gears, lobes, or other moving bodies, to displace the media from one area into another (i.e., moving the material from suction todischarge). Sometimes the terms ‘inlet’ (for suction) and ‘exit’ or ‘outlet’ (for discharge) are used.The pumped medium is usually liquid; however, many designs can handle solids in the forms of suspension, entrained or dissolved gas, paper pulp, mud, slurries, tars, and other exotic substances,that, at least by appearance, do not resemble liquids. Nevertheless, an overall liquid behavior must be exhibited by the medium in order to be pumped. In other words, the medium must havenegligible resistance to tensile stresses.The HI classifies pumps by type, not by application. The user, however, must ultimately deal withspecific applications. Often, based on personal experience, preference for a particular type of pumpdevelops, and this preference is passed on in the particular industry. For example, boiler feed pumpsare usually of a multistage diffuser barrel type, especially for the medium and high energy (over 1000 hp) applications, although volute pumps in single or multistage configurations, with radials or axially split casings, also have been applied successfully. Examples of pump types and applicationsand the reasons behind implicational preferences will follow.