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messenger-no19

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 06, 2009
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05/11/2014

No. 19 -
D ecem ber 1979
T h e D u tc h T e le s c o p eo n L a S illa
J .L u b
T h e T e le s c o p e
O v e rth e y e a rsth e s ite inS o u thA fric a o n th eR e p u b lic O b \ue000
s e rv a to ry
A n n e x e
a tth e
H a rte b e e s p o o rtd a m ,w h e re
th e
te le s c o p ew a sfirs t e re c te d
i n
1958, had
c o n s id e r a b lyd e \ue000
te rio ra te d .T h is
w as
m a in lyc a u s e d
b yp o llu tio n
fro m
th e
n e a r b y b ig
c itie so fP re to ria a n d

J o h a n n e s b u rg .T h e d is \ue000 c u s s io nt olo o kfo ran e w s ite h a d b e e ng o in g o nfo rsom e tim e

in
L e id e na n d
it wasfin a llyc o n c lu d e d
th a tth e
b e s t
s o lu tio nw o u ldb et o s e e kfro m
E S O

a na rra n g e m e n t s u c h a sth a ta lr e a d ye x is tin gfo rth e D a n is h n a tio n a l te le s c o p e s . A n

im p o rta n tc o n s id e r a tio n
w a s h e reth e n e a re q u a lityo f
th e
la titu d e s
o f
H a rte b e e s p o o rt
(-2 5 "4 6 ')
v s .
L a

S illa (-2 9 "1 5 '). T h isw o u ldre q u ireth a t an e wp illa rw o u ld h a v et o b eo n lys lig h tlyin c lin e d .

E S O
a n d
th e
D u tc h
a s tro n o m ic a lc o m m u n ityw ill e a c h
h a v e
a c c e s s
t o
50 %
o fth e
a v a ila b le
tim e ,
e v e n ly
d is \ue000
trib u te do v e rth e y e a r . I t ish o p e dth a tth e p r e s e n c eo fth e
L ig h tc o lle c to r
w ill
ta k e
som e
p re s s u re
o ff
th e
h e a v ily
o v e rs u b s c rib e d
E S O
1 m
p h o to m e triete le s c o p e .
T h e
te le s c o p e
a n d
i t s
c o n tro l-a n d -d riv e
s y s te m

w e re b ui l tb y R a d e m a k e rs (R o tte rd a m )a n dth e L e id e nw o rk s h o p in

1 9 5 5 . It c a n
b ec o n s id e re d
as a
p ro to ty p e
o fth e
w e ll\ue000
know n
E S O
1 m
te le s c o p e .Som e
te c h n ic a l/o p tic a ld a ta
a rec o lle c te d
inth eta b le b e lo w .
W e lc o m e to
L aS illa !
A s
th e
la te s tnew com er in
th e
fa m ily
o fte le -
s c o p e sa tE S O , th eD u tc h9 0c m
" L ig h tc o lle c to r"
h a sn o w
b e e nin s ta lle d a n d , a s e x p e c te d ,i tp e r-
fo rm s
v e ry
w eil in
it s
n e w
e n v iro n m e n t.D r. J a n
L u bfro m
E S O /C h ileis in c h a r g eo fth isin s tru m e n t
a n dre p o rtsa b o u t itstra n s fe rfro m
th eA fric a n to
th e
S o u th
A m e r ic a n
c o n tin e n t.
H is
a rtic le
a ls o
c o n ta in sim p o rta n tin fo rm a tio nfo ra llp ro s p e c tiv e
u s e rs .
T h e90 cm
p h o to m e triete le s c o p eo fth e
L e id e nS o u th e rn
S ta tio n ,
b e tte r
know n
a s
th e
L ig h tc o lle c to r ,
w as
tra n s \ue000
fe rre d
fro m
S o u th
A fric at o
C h iled u rin gth efa llo f 1 9 7 8 .
W hen, on
Decem ber 1978,th e
a g re e m e n tb e tw e e n
E S O
a n dth eS tic h tin g
L e id sS te rre w a c h t F o n d s ,ow nero f th e
L ig h tc o lle c to r ,w a ss ig n e d in L e id e n , t h ete le s c o p e h a d a l\ue000
re a d y a r r iv e d o n L a S illa . T h e s a m e te a m

r e s p o n s ib lefo ri t s d is m a n tlin g inS e p te m b e r 1 9 7 8 , v iz M e s s r s .A . d eJ o n g a n d G .v .d . N a g e lo fth eL e id e nw o rk s h o p a n d

D .F . S t e v e n s o n , e le c tr o n ic ia na n dm anagero f th e L e id e nS o u th e rnS ta tio n , a ls oto o k c a reo f th ere c o n s tru c tio no fth ete le s c o p e a n d its p e r ip h e r a ls . T h e yc o u lds ta rtw o rkb ym id -J a n u a ry 1 9 7 9 in th eo ld1 m

dom e( a ls oknow na sth eC h ilim a pdom e) a n d th ep r o je c tw a ss u b s ta n tia llyfin is h e dd u rin g th efirs t d a y s o fM a rc h .S im u lta n e o u s ly

E S O
h a d
a n
e x te n s io n
t o
th e
dom e
c o n s tru c te d
i n
o rd e r
t o
p r o v id e
som e
o ffic e
a n d
s to ra g e
s p a c e .A fte rth e
fin a la s tro n o m ic a l te s ts

o fte le \ue000 s c o p ea n de q u ip m e n tb y D r. J .W . P e l ( R o d e n ) a n dth ea u \ue000 th o r, re g u la ro b s e rv a tio n s

c o u ld
b e
s ta rte d
a g a i n
b y th e
e n d
o f
M a rc h
a fte r
a n
in te rru p tio n
o f
le s s
th a n

s e v e n m o n th s !U n fo rtu n a te lyth isw a sju s t a t th e e n do fth eg o o d p e r io d . F ig ur e 1show s th ete le s c o p e(i n s u n lig h t) in its p r e \ue000 s e n t s ta te .

L ig h tc o lle c to rT e c h n ic a l D a ta
C a s s e g r a info rk
m o u n tin g
D a ll- K ir k h a m
o p tic s
P rim a ry d ia m e te r:
S e c o n d a ry d ia m e te r:
O v e ra ll fo c a l ra tio :
U s a b le ( u n c o r r e c te d ) fje ld :
S e ttin g s p e e d :
P o in tin g
a c c u ra c y :
C le a r a n c e in
fo rk :
M a x im u m
w e ig h t o fin s tru m e n ts
9 0 .8c m
2 4 .9 c m
F /1 3 .8
5 '
1 0 0 \u00b7/m in
2 a '
8 3c m
-
1 0 0k g
F ig . 1 :T h e
L ig h tc o lle c to r .
A n
im p o rta n td e s ig n
c o n s id e r a tio n

has beent op r o v id e a fa s t,a c c u ra te lyp o in tin ga n de ffic ie n tte le s c o p e . T h e s e e x \ue000 p e c ta tio n si th a sa m p lyfu lfille dd u rin gm o reth a n 2 0 y e a rs

o fs e r v ic e inS o u th A fr ic a .T h ete le s c o p ec o n tro l isp a rtic u \ue000
la r lyc o n v e n ie n t inth a tc o o rd in a te s c a n b e p r e s e t o n a s e t
o fd ia lsw h ileam e a s u re m e n t isg o in g
on. W hen
i tisfin \ue000

is h e d ,th ete le s c o p e w illm ovea u to m a tic a llyt o th en e w p o \ue000 s itio n .T h em e c h a n ic a lfu n c tio n in ghas beenra th e rs m o o th u pt o

n o w
o n
L a S illa .
T h e W a lr a v e n
P h o to m e te r
S in c e1958th eL ig h tc o l/e c to r has beenm a in ly usedw ithi t s
s ta n d a rd

in s tru m e n t:th efiv e -c h a n n e ls im u lta n e o u sW a l\ue000 ra v e np h o to m e te r.A s c a n b e s e e n infig ur e 2th isp h o to m e \ue000 te rlo o k sa sif itw e reb u ilta ro u n dth e te le s c o p e . T h ep rin \ue000 c ip le so fth iss p e c tro p h o to m e te rhave beenfirs td e s c r ib e d b y th e W a lr a v e n s (W a lra v e n , T h . a n d W a lra v e n , J .H ., 1 9 6 0 ,

B u l/. A s tr o n . In s t.o f th e N e th e r la n d s ,1 5 ,6 7 ).T h ed a ta -a c \ue000
q u is itio n
s y s te m
is s till la r g e lyth e
sam e asd e s c r ib e d
b y
R ijf,T in b e rg e n
a n d
W a lr a v e n , 1 9 6 9 ,B u l/. A s tr o n . In s t.o f
th eN e th e rla n d s ,2 0 ,2 7 9 ,w ithth ep r o v is io nth a ts in c e1 9 7 5

th e d a ta a ren olo n g e rre c o rd e do np a p e rta p eb u t o ntw o c a s s e tte -u n its . W e a ls o re fe rt oth e irp a p e rfo r furth e rte c h \ue000 n ic a l d e ta ils ,w h ic h

w o u ld
le a d u sm uchto o fa r h e re , a n d
u rg ep ro s p e c tiv eu s e rst o
c a r e fu lly
re a d
th e irw o rk .
W en o w

b rie flyd e s c rib eth ew o rk in go fth ep h o to m e te r (s e efig u re 2fo rth e g e n e ra l la y o u t).T h elig h tfirs t p a s s e s a tu r n a b le

p r is m
w h ic h
d e fle c ts
i t
e ith e r
to w a rd s
th e
2
e y e p ie c eo rto w a rd sth ep h o to m e te r. In th ela tte r c a s e ,th e
lig h tp a s s e s
th ro u g h
th e
b e a m s p litte rw h ic h
m akes
tw o
c o m p le m e n ta rybeam so flig h ta n dd a rk bands. O ne beam
th e n
p a s s e s
th ro u g h
tw o
q u a rtz
p r is m s ,
d is p e r s in g
th e
lig h ta n d
d e fle c tin g
i tu p w a rd sa lo n g
th e
te le s c o p e
tu b e
a n dis th e n
im a g e d b y th ec o n d e n s o r. T h er e s u ltin g s p e c \ue000
tru m
isc u t a tth ed a rkb a n d s b yl i t t l ep ris m st o
g iv efo u r
p h o to m e tric
b a n d s :
V ,
S ,
U ,
W ,
a n d
th e n
re a c h e s
fo u r
p h o to m u ltip lie r s ,tw o
o n
e a c h
s id e
o fth e

s p e c tro g ra p h , m o u n te dind ry -ic e -c o o le d d e w a r s .Inth is w a y s e e in g v a r i\ue000 a tio n sd on o th a v e a n y in flu e n c eu p o n th e fo rm

o fth e p a s s \ue000
b a n d s . M o re o v e r, th e
lig h te ffic ie n c y
is v e r y
h ig h
d u et o
th eu s eo fq u a rtz e le m e n ts ( e s p e c ia llyim p o rta n t in th eu l\ue000
tra v io le t). T h es e c o n d b e a m

isd e fle c te dd o w n w a rd sin to a th irdd e w a r . U s in g a g la s sfilte r th ep h o to m e tricL -b a n d is s e le c te d .

D u rin gth etra n s p o rto fth ete le s c o p efro m

S o u thA fric a to C h ile , th ep h o to m e te r w a sflo w nb a c kt o H o lla n d , w h e r e D r. J .W . P e l a n d th e

R oden
w o rk s h o pc a rrie d
o u talo n g \ue000
n e e d e d
r e v is io n .T h e
lo w e rp a rto fth e
p h o to m e te rw as
m adee a s ily
re m o v a b le , w h e re a sth e
p a rta lo n g

th ete le \ue000 s c o p etu b ew a sre s tru c tu re ds oth a ti t w ill r e m a info re v e r a tta c h e dt oth ete le s c o p e a n d n e e d sn o re a lig n m e n t.Inth is wayi tw ill be easyt oa c c o m m o d a teo th e rin s tru m e n ts at th eC a s s e g r a in fo c u s . D r. P e l a ls o r e c a lc u la te d th eo p tic a l lig h t-p a th

inth ein s tru m e n t a n dth is p r o v e d
h ig h lyu s e fu l
w henth ew h o lep h o to m e te rw a s r e a lig n e d o n
L aS illa u s \ue000
in g
a la s e r. M e a s u re m e n ts a n d
c a lc u la tio n sshow ed
p e r\ue000
fe c ta g re e m e n t.
F ig .2 :T h eW a lra v e n p h o to m e te r. O n e s e e s th eL -fo rmo f th e p h o to m e te r. T h edew arc o n ta in in gth eL -p h o to c e lls tic k so u tb e lo wa n d th e
o n ec o n ta in in gth eB -W -p h o to c e llsp ro tru d e s fo r w a r d . T h e e y e p ie c e isd ir e c tlyb e lo w th e te le s c o p e a x is . F u r th e r v is ib le a red e c lin a tio n
m o to ra n dw o rm .
T h e
d a taa c q u is itio n
is b a s e d
u p o n

aO e -m o d eo p e ra \ue000 tio n . T o e a c hp h o to m u ltip lie rth e reb e lo n g s o n ein te g ra to r w h ic h

in c o rp o ra te s
a s e to f th re e
a u to -ra n g in g
c o n d e n \ue000
s o rs . W h e n
a m e a s u r e m e n t is fin is h e d
th e s e
fiv e
in te g ra \ue000

to rsa re re a do u ts e q u e n tia lly b y ad ig ita l v o ltm e te r. E a c h m e a s u re m e n tn o r m a llyc o n s is tso ftw o s u c hin te g ra tio n s ; in b e t w e e n a n da fte rw a rd sth ein te g ra to rs a r es h o rte d a u \ue000 to m a tic a lly .T h is c a u s e s a d e la yo f a tm ost 4 s e c o n d s , s o th a tth isisa k in do fm in im u m

u s e fu lin te g ra tio n tim e . F o r
v e ry
b rig h ts ta rs a
m e c h a n ic a lo p tic a la tte n u a to r-a
ro \ue000
ta tin g
d ru m
w ith
s lo ts -c a n
b e
in tro d u c e d
in to
th e
lig h t
b e a m
g iv in gro u g h ly3
m
a tte n u a tio n .Inth is w a y ad y n a m ic
ra n g eo f 2m
t o1 5
m
is a s s u re d .T h e s y s te m

is c a p a b leo f a n o v e r a lla c c u ra c yo f1% 0.R e d u c tio no f th em e a s u re m e n ts is a tp re s e n to n ly

p o s s ib le
i n
L e id e n ;
fa c ilitie s
h a v e
b e e n
m a d e a v a ila b le to E S O o b s e r v e r s(c o n ta c tO r.J .T in b e rg e n ,
S te rre w a c h t, L e id e n ).
T e le s c o p e P e rfo rm a n c eo n
L a
S illa
W ith
n e w
a n d
m o re
s e n s itiv e
p h o to m u ltip lie r s
(H a m a m a ts u
R 928
S -2 0
s id e w in d o w ,r e p la c in g
th e
2 0 (!)\ue000
y e a r-o ld
s e to f IP 2 1 ), fr e s h ly
a lu m in iz e d
m irro rs
a n d
th .e
b e tte rtra n s p a re n c yo n
L a S illa , a s u b s ta n tia l g a in in s e n \ue000
s itiv ity , e s p e c ia lly in
th e
u ltra -v io le t,w as

p re d ic te d .T h is a g re e dw ith th ea u th o r's e x te n s iv e te s ts in A p ril. A ll th e s e im p r o v e m e n ts h a v e s lig h tly c h a n g e d th ep h o to m e tricp a s s -

b a n d s
a s
p u b lis h e d
b y
L u b
a n d
P el(A s tro n . A s tro p h y s .,
5 4 ,1 3 7 ,1 9 7 7 ),th en e w v a lu e s a res u m m a r iz e db e lo w in ta \ue000
b le1 .These data wered e te rm in e d .intw o ways:firs tfro m
th eknow n
p ro p e rtie so fth eb e a m s p litte r (P e l a n d
L u b , in
p re p a ra tio n )a n d , s e c o n d , b ys c a n n in gth ro u g h th e s p e c \ue000
tru m
w ith
a
n a rro w
s iit .
F ro m
s ta rs
o f
know n

a b s o l u te e n e rg yd is tr ib u tio na n d a ra n g eo f s p e c tra l ty p e so n e c a n th e n

d e te rm in e
th e
z e ro p o in ts
o ftr a n s m is s io n
fro m
th e

s p e c tra l fe a tu re s v is ib le .A g re e m e n t e x is tst ow ith in afe w A n g s tro m sb e tw e e nb o th m e th o d s . A s a nillu s tr a tio no f th e h ig htra n s p a re n c yo n

L a S illa Im e n tio nth a t w e s till m e a \ue000
s u req u itesom eflu xa t3 1 0 0A .
R e la tiv e
V
B
L
U
W
transm ission
0
(6 6 0 0 )
4 7 8 3
(4 1 9 0 )
3 8 9 4
3 3 9 8
' /2
5 7 8 3
4 4 9 4
3 9 5 2
3 7 3 5
3 3 1 3
1
5 4 1 3
4 2 6 2
3 8 4 5
3 6 1 4
3 2 3 2
' /2
5 0 7 8
4 0 6 2
3 7 3 8
3 5 0 4
3 1 5 7
0
4 7 8 3
3 8 9 4
3 6 1 6
3 3 9 8
3 0 7 3
!-e ft
5 4 2 2
4 2 7 0
3 8 4 5
3 6 1 7
3 2 3 4
B a n d -w id th
7 0 5
4 3 2
2 1 4
2 3 1
1 5 6
T a b le1 :T h ep re s e n tW a lra v e n p a s s -b a n d sa s d e te rm in e db yL u b
a n dP e l (L a S illa , M a r c h1 9 7 9 ).A ll w a v e le n g th s a r e in A n g s tr o m s .
3

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