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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

No. 76 -
June 1994
M e s s a g e fro m th e D ire c to r G e n e ra l
S U M M A R YO FA REPORT TO THE ESO STAFF
1 .
A u d it
T h e te a m
w h ic h
w a s c h a rg e d
b y th e
E S O
C o u n c il t o
p ro v id ea n a u d it re p o rt
a b o u t
E S O
a n d
in
p a r tic u la r
th e
V L T
p r o je c t, h a s n o w fin is h e d its w o r k w ith a
fin a l d is c u s s io n
a tth e
E S O
H e a d q u a r\ue000
te rs
o n
A p r il 2 8 ,
1 9 9 4 .T h e
re p o rt h a s
b e e n
p u b lis h e d
a n d
w as
d is c u s s e d
b y
C o u n c ilinits r e c e n t m e e tin g .
Ia m
g la d to te ll y o u th a tE S O
cam e
th ro u g h
th is
e x e r c is e
"w ith
fly in g
c o l\ue000
o u rs "
a n d
th a t
o u r
e a r lie r
s ta te m e n ts
c o n c e rn in g th e w o rk d o n e a tE S O

w e re la rg e ly c o n fir m e d b y th e A u d itTeam .In p a rtic u la r, it w a s a g re e d th a t th e re q u e s t fo r

a n
in c r e a s e d
V L T
b u d g e t
w as
r e a s o n a b le
a n d
th e
n e e d
t o
a d d
a
num ber
o f
s ta ff
p o s itio n s
w as
a ls o
s u p p o rte d .
T h e
A u d it
T e a m
p ro p o s e d
s p e c ific
m e a s u re s
t o
th e
C o u n c il in c lu d in g
in \ue000
c re a s e s
in
b u d g e t
a n d
s ta ff a n d

a ls o im p ro v e m e n tso f v a rio u s a s p e c tso f th e w o rk b re a k d o w n s tru c tu re , th e m a n a g e \ue000 m e n t s y s te m , a s

w e ll a s th e
p la n s
fo r
o p e ra tio n s . A v e ry im p o r ta n t c o n c lu s io n
w a s th a tE S Ow ill b e a b le t o m a n a g e th e
V L Tp r o je c t u n d e r th e s e a s s u m p tio n s .It
s h o u ld

b e n o te d th a t th is m e a n s th a t it h a s b e e n p o s s ib le t o o b ta in s u p p o r t fo r a num ber of new

p o s itio n s
s in c e
e a rly
la s ty e a r.Itisn o w
o u r ta s k to fill th e s e
p o s itio n s
w ith
th e
b e s t p o s s ib le
s ta ff.
T h is w ill n o t b e e a s y a n d
w ill r e q u ir e a
c e rta in e ffo rt fro m
a llin v o lv e d .
2 .
C h ile
T h e s itu a tio n
o fE S O
inC h ile h a s b e e n
th e s u b je c t o f ;lla n y re c e n t d is c u s s io n s
a n d ,a s
is
know n
a n d
h a s
b e e n
m ade
p u b lic
th ro u g h
re c e n t
p re s s
r e le a s e s ,
E S O
a p p e a rs to
b e
u n d e r a c o n c e rte d
a tta c k fro m
s o m e g ro u p sin th a t c o u n \ue000
try .
W h ile
E S O
h a s
m e tic u lo u s ly
a d \ue000
h e re d t o its le g a l o b lig a tio n sin C h ile , it is
tru e th a t th e w is h e so f th e C h ile a n
a s \ue000
tro n o m e rs
a s
w e lla s th e
E S O
C h ile a n
s ta ff w e re

n o t a lw a y s s u ffic ie n tly ta k e n in to a c c o u n t. H o w e v e r, th e S u p p le m e n \ue000 ta ry A g re e m e n t w h ic h is n o winth e fin a l s ta g e so f n e g o tia tio n , ta k e s c a re o f th is .

W ea re h o p e fu l t h a t it w ill b e c o m e p o s \ue000
s ib le t o c o n c lu d e th e s ig n in g a n d r a tifi\ue000
c a tio n
p ro c e d u re ,
s o
th a t th is
A g re e \ue000
m ent can
e n te r in to fo rc e a n d
o u r C h i\ue000
le a n c o lle a g u e s c a n th e n p r o fit fro m
th e
n e w
r e g u la tio n s .Infa c t,E S O

has done e v e ry th in g it c a n re a s o n a b ly d o a n d th e is s u e s s u rro u n d in g th e o w n e rs h ip o fP a\ue000 ra n a l is n o t E S O 's p r o b le m , b u t a p r o b \ue000 le m

o f th e C h ile a n G o v e rn m e n t.W e a re
c o n fid e n t th a t th e
C h ile a n
G o v e rn m e n t
w ill ta k e
th e
n e c e s s a ry a c tio n s
in
d u e
tim e , b u t itisu n fo rtu n a te th a t w e
m ay
ru n
in to
p ro b le m s
w ith
th e
V L T
s c h e d u le ,
if
a
s o lu tio n
t o
th is
c r itic a l
p ro b le m
isn o t fo u n d
soon. The
re c e n t
v is it b y th eE S O d e le g a tio n t o C h ile d u r \ue000
in g
w h ic h
m e e tin g s w e re
h e ld
w ith th e
F o re ig n
M in is te r a n d
a ls o th e P re s id e n t
o f th e
R e p u b lic
o f C h ile , re a s s u re d
u s
th a t
th e
C h ile a n
G o v e rn m e n t
fu lly
a d h e re s to th e
c o n d itio n s
la id
dow n
in
th e
C h ile - E S O
T re a ty ,
in c lu d in g
E S O 's
im m u n itie s a n d p r iv ile g e s .
In
v ie w
o f th e
c ru c ia l im p o rta n c e
o f

th e P a ra n a l is s u e fo r th eV L T p r o je c t a n d s in c e w e h a v e a t th is m o m e n t c o m m it\ue000 te d

a p p r o x im a te ly h a lfo fth e to ta lV L T b u d g e t, itis o b v io u s th a t w e m u s t n o w d o o u r u tm o s t to " fin d a h o m e " fo r th e w o r ld 's la rg e s t o p tic a l te le s c o p e .

3 .0 P C
T h e O b s e rv in g P ro g ra m m e s C o m m itte e
m et
fo r
th e
firs t
tim e
u n d e r th e
n e w
e v a lu a tio n
s y s te m
a t th e
e n d
o fM ay.
T h en e w
p ro c e s s m e a n s th a t m o re s c i\ue000
e n tis ts
w ill be
in v o lv e d
in
th e

p e e r re \ue000 v ie w a n d th is w ill u n d o u b te d ly r e s u ltina b e tte r a n d

m o re
e q u ita b le

assessm ent o f th e o b s e r v in g p r o p o s a ls . T h in g s w e n t e x tre m e ly w e ll a n d a v e ry g o o d jo b w a s d o n e

b y
J a c q u e s
B re y s a c h e r a n d
h is
p e o p le
d e s p ite
th e
fa c t
th a t
a
re c o rd
num bero fa p p lic a tio n s w a s re c e iv e d fo r
th is ro u n d , c lo s e to 6 0 0 .
1
4 .
S T C

T h e S c ie n tific T e c h n ic a l C o m m itte e a ls o m e t re c e n tly a n d e v a lu a te d th e s c ie n tific te c h n ic a l a s p e c tso fth eE S O o p e ra tio n s a t

L a
S illa . T h e
S T C
a g a in
u n d e r lin e d
th a t s c ie n c e
must be
th e
d r iv e r o fa ll
E S O
a c tiv itie s a n d
e x p re s s e d th e o p in \ue000
io n
th a t th e re
a re
c u rre n tly
to o
m any
ta s k s
fo r
th e
a s tr o n o m ic a l/te c h n ic a l
s ta ff
a t
L a
S illa .
R e d u c tio n s
w ill
b e
n e c e s s a ry ,
p ro b a b ly
b y
th e
c lo s u r e
o f

s o m e o f th e te le s c o p e s , o r b y tra n s fe r\ue000 rin g th e o p e ra tio n a l r e s p o n s ib ilityt on a \ue000 tio n a l g ro u p s .

T h e
S T C
s tro n g ly
s u p p o rte d
th e
v ie w
th a t
th e
V L T I
m ust
b e
re -in tro \ue000
d u c e d
in
th e
V L T
a s
s o o n
a s
p o s s ib le
s in c e
itisa u n iq u e fe a tu re
o f th is te le \ue000
s c o p e .
T h e
S T C
e n d o rs e d
th e
new ,
s m a lle r
in te rfe ro m e try
p ro g ra m m e
w h ic h
w as
p re s e n te d
b yE S O .It c o s ts
3 0%
le s s a n d
a ls o fu rth e r re d u c e s th e
a n n u a l c o s t,
s in c e
it w ill
b e
s tre tc h e d
o v e r tw ic e th e p e rio d
e a r lie r e n v is a g e d .
In
th is
c o n n e c tio n ,
th e
in te re s t o f o u r
A u s tr a lia n
c o lle a g u e s
in
V L T
in te rfe r\ue000
o m e try
a n d
th e
p o s s ib ility
o f u s in g
in
a d d itio n
t o
th e
M P G /C N R S
a n d
E S O
c o n trib u tio n s th e
e n try fe e
b y A u s tr a lia
fo r
th is
p u rp o s e ,
if
a n d
w hen
it
b e \ue000
c o m e s a fu ll m e m b e r o fE S O ,isin d e e d
v e r y e x c itin g .
5 .
S c ie n tific V is itin g C o m m itte e
T h is
C o m m itte e
h a s
n o w
d e liv e r e d
it s
re p o rt a b o u t th e s c ie n c e c a rrie d
out at
L aS illa a n d a t th e H e a d q u a rte rs . Itis th e
in te n tio n
t o
c o n tin u e
t o
re ly
u p o n
it s
s e r v ic e sa sa nA d v is o ry B o d y fo r th e s e
q u e s tio n s .
C e rta in
p ro b le m s
w e re

re \ue000 m a rk e do n ,inp a rtic u la r th a t m o re a tte n \ue000 tio n s h o u ld b e g iv e n to th e

in v o lv e m e n t
o fE S O s c ie n tis tsin th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f
n e w

in s tr u m e n ta l fa c ilitie s , c o m m u n ic a \ue000 tio n s b e tw e e n th e s c ie n tis ts in s id e a n d o u ts id eE S Oa n d a ls o th e p e rs o n n e l p o l\ue000 ic y o f th e O r g a n iz a tio n o f w h ic h c e r ta in a s p e c ts , fo r in s ta n c e s a la rie s , a reinth e s ta te o fa nu n d e s ir a b le la c k o f d e fin itio n .

Itiso b v io u s th a t w e m u s t a tte m p tt o d e fin e b e tte r w h a t w e a re re a lly try in g to d o

in
th e
p e rs o n n e l a re a , b u t a ls o th a t
w e
m ust do
e v e ry th in g
p o s s ib let o
a t\ue000
tra c t a n d
k e e p
th e
s ta ff w ith
th e
b e s t
q u a lific a tio n s .
F o r th is
re a s o n ,
s p e c ia l
m e a s u re s m a y b e c o m e

n e c e s s a ry d u r\ue000 in g th e p e r io d u n til th e p e rs o n n e l p o lic y h a s b e c o m e b e tte r d e fin e d . T h e is s u e o f a s y s te m

b a s e d
o n
m e ritis
s till o p e n ,
b u t it is
p a rtic u la rly
im p o rta n t th a t th e
s ta ff
g e ts
a
fe e lin g
o f fa irn e s s
in
th e
ju d g e m e n t o f th e ir p e rfo rm a n c e . It w ill
b e
m y
ta s k
t o
t r y
t o
c o n v in c e
th e
F i\ue000
n a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d
C o u n c ilo fw hat
o u r " fa ir m a r k e t v a lu e " re a llyis .T h is w ill

b e c o m e m u c h c le a re r a fte r th e te rm in a \ue000 tio n o f th e c u rre n t c o m p a ra tiv e s tu d y o f e m p lo y m e n t

c o n d itio n s
( in c lu d in g
s a la r ie s ) a tE S O
a n d o th e r n a tio n a l a n d
p r iv a te o rg a n iz a tio n s .
6 .
B u d g e t
Ia m

h a p p yt o re p o rt th a t F in a n c e C o m \ue000 m itte e a n d C o u n c il a p p r o v e d th e b u d g e t fo r

1 9 9 4
a s
w e ll
a s
th e
fo re c a s t
fo r
1 9 9 5 -1 9 9 7 .
T h e y
a ls o
a p p ro v e d
v a ri\ue000
o u s
m anagem ent
to o ls
in
c o n n e c tio n
w ith th e c a s h flo w , e tc . w h ic h w ill fa c ili\ue000
ta te
th e
fin a n c ia l a d m in is tr a tio n
d u rin g
th e
n e x t
y e a rs
o f
h e a v y
V L T
e x p e n \ue000
d itu re s .
7 .
C o n c lu s io n s
Inc o n c lu s io n , Ia m

g la d to s ta te th a t I d o not see anyre a ls h o w -s to p p e rs fo rE S O a n d

itsV L T p r o je c t a t th is m o m e n t.W e w ill s u re ly b e a b let o c a rry th ro u g h s u c \ue000 c e s s fu lly th is g re a t p r o je c t b u t itisa ls o tru e th a t w e m u s t im p ro v e o u rs e lv e s

in
te rm s
o f m a n a g e m e n t te c h n iq u e s
a n d
in te rn a l c o m m u n ic a tio n . T h e re
m ays till
b e
som e
" c u ltu ra l"
p ro b le m s
w ith in
E S O ,b u t I th in k th a t g o o d
w ill a n d e n \ue000
th u s ia s m
fo r
th e
com m on
c a u s e
w ill
m ake
it
p o s s ib le
t o
o v e rc o m e
th e s e
d iffic u ltie s .
R .G IA C C O N I
T E L E S C O P E S
A N D
IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N
W o rk S ta rtso n th eV L T M 2 U n its
D .ENARD, ESO

T h e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d c o n s tru c tio n o f the 4V L Ts e c o n d a ry m irro r u n itsis g o \ue000 in gt ob e c a rrie d

o u t b y M a tra M a rc o n i
S y s te m s
to g e th e r
w ith
R E O S C ,
S F IM
a n d
M A N .
T h e
k ic k -o ff
m e e tin g
w as
h e ld
o nA p ril 2 0 a n d
2 1
a n d th e d e s ig n
w o rkisa lre a d y p r o c e e d in g .
O n e o f th e b a s ic fe a tu re s o f th eV L Tis
th a t th e re

iso n ly o n e s e c o n d a ry m irro r t os e rv e th e d iffe re n t o b s e rv in g m o d e s . T h e s w itc h fro m

C a s s e g r a int oth e N a s \ue000
m yth
a n d
c o u d e
fo c i
is
a c h ie v e d
b y
m o v in g
th e te rtia ry m irro r in to d iffe re n t
p o s itio n s ra th e r th a n - a s is tr a d itio n a l \ue000
b y
e x c h a n g in g
th e
s e c o n d a ry
m irro r
u n it.
T h e re
a re
im p o rta n t
o p e ra tio n a l
a n d

c o s t-s a v in g a d v a n ta g e sinth is a p \ue000 p ro a c h . It g iv e s a u n iq u e o p p o rtu n ity to c h a n g e a t a n y tim e o f o b s e rv in g m o d e , re d u c e s

m a in te n a n c e
a n d
s ig n ific a n tly
s im p lifie s th e o p e r a tio n s o ftw a r ea sw e ll
2
a sth e
a d a p te rs . T h is s e c o n d a ry m irro r
h a s
a
d ia m e te ro fa b o u t
1 .2m e tre
fo r

th e n o m in a l a p e r tu r e o f F /1 5 a t th e N a s \ue000 m y th fo c u s . B e c a u s e th eV L Tisla r g e ly o p tim iz e d

fo r
th e
IR ,
th e
s e c o n d a ry
m irror also
d e fin e s
th e
p u p il w h ic h
is
s lig h tly u n d e r s iz e d
w ith
re s p e c t to
th e
b e a m
d e fin e d b y th e p rim a ry m irro r o u t\ue000
e r d ia m e te r. T h is
a p p ro a c h
s e ts
how \ue000
e v e ra n u m b e r o f to u g h re q u ire m e n tso n
th e M 2 u n it s in c e a ile th e re q u ire m e n ts
w h ic h
tr a d itio n a lly
a re
d is trib u te d
o n
s e v e ra l m irro r u n its o f d iffe re n t s iz e s a re
c o n c e n tr a te d in to o n e s in g le u n it.
A s
p a rt o f th e
a c tiv e
o p tic s s c h e m e ,
th e
s e c o n d a ry
m irro r m u s t b e
a b le
t o
m a in ta in
th e
te le s c o p e
g e o m e try
w ith
re s p e c tt o
th e
p rim a ry
m irro r.
T o
th is
e ffe c t, th e s e c o n d a ry m irro r c a n b e p o \ue000
s itio n e d
inth re e c o o rd in a te st o
c o rre c t
fo r fo c u s in g a n d c e n trin g a s itisa lre a d y
th e c a s e fo r th eN TIa s w e lla s fo r m o s t
m o d e rn te le s c o p e s .
Ina d d itio n , th eV L T s e c o n d a ry m irro rs
c a n
b e c o n tr o lle d
intilt a ro u n d
a p o in t
c lo s e
t o
th e
v e rte x
t o
c o rre c t fo r fa s t
g u id in g e rro rs . T h is m o d eisc a lle d fie ld
s ta b iliz a tio n
a n d
w as
in tro d u c e d
a t
a
v e rye a rly s ta g e o f th e p ro je c ta n d w a s
d r iv e n
b y
th e
im p o r ta n t w in d
lo a d s
t o
w h ic h
th e
s tru c tu re
w o u ld
h a v e
b e e n
s u b je c te d w ith th e re tra c ta b le e n c lo s u re
o r ig in a lly fo re s e e n . T h e la te r d e c is io n t o
re v e rt
t o
a
c o n v e n tio n a l
e n c lo s u r e
\ue000
e s s e n tia llyino rd e rt o b e tte r p ro te c t th e
p rim a ry m irro r fro m
w in d lo a d s - d id n o t
re m o v e
th a t n e e d . A s a m a tte r o f fa c t,
n u m e r ic a l a n d
w in d
tu n n e l s im u la tio n s
h a v e
show n
th a t th e e n c lo s u re d id
n o t

c o n trib u te m u c ht or e d u c e th e d y n a m ic p a rto fth e w in d lo a d s a n d th a t, c o n s id \ue000 e rin g th e s tro n g w in d s a t C e rro P a ra n a l,

a fa s t g u id in g w o u ldb e n e c e s s a r y if th e v e ry a m b itio u s im a g e q u a lity g o a ls w e re to b e a tta in e d .

T h e
V L T
u s e s
a s
a main
c rite rio n
fo r
im a g e q u a lity th e C e n tra l In te n s ity R a tio
w h ic h
c h a ra c te riz e s
th e
p e a k
in te n s ity
d e g ra d a tio n
in d u c e d
b y th e
te le s c o p e .
T h e
C IR
is
a
d ir e c t
in d ic a tio n
o f th e
te le s c o p e
e ffic ie n c y
a n d
is
v e ry s e n s i\ue000
tiv e
t o
ra n d o m
im a g e
m o tio n .
A s
a n
e x a m p le ,
a
ra n d o m
im a g e
m o tio n
o f
0 .0 5 a r c s e c o n d w ill p r o d u c e a C IR
lo s s
of about1 0%
for a
s e e in g
o f 0 .4 a rc \ue000
s e c o n d .
A tm o s p h e ric
im a g e
m o tio n
c a n
a ls o
b e
c o rre c te d
b y
th e
tip /tilt
s e c o n d a ry
m ir r o r w ith in th e
lim it o f th e
is o p la n a tic
fie ld
a n d
if
a n
a p p ro p ria te
d e te c tio n
s c h e m e is u s e d .
T h e
a c c u ra c y
re q u ire m e n t
fo r
fie ld
s ta b iliz a tio n
is
0 .0 5 a rc s e c o n d
w h ic h
c o rre s p o n d s to a b o u t0 .0 1
a rc s e c o n din
s k y
c o o rd in a te s . T h e
c o rre c tio n
b a n d \ue000
w id th
h a s b e e n fix e d to
1 0H e rtz w h ic h
h a s b e e n fo u n d a d e q u a te to c o rre c t fo r
te le s c o p e
g u id in g
e rro rs
a s
w e lla s fo r
a tm o s p h e r ic im a g e m o tio n .

T h e th ird re q u ire m e n t fo r th e s e c o n d \ue000 a ry m irro rsiss q u a re w a v e c h o p p in g fo r o b s e r v in g

in
th e
IR .
T h e
a m a z in g
d e \ue000
v e lo p m e n t
o f
IR
d e te c to rs
in
th e
la s t
1 0y e a rs
h a s
how ever
m uch
re d u c e d
th e
u s e
o f c h o p p in g
w h ic h s e e m s n o w
lim ite d
t o
th e
lo n g e r w a v e le n g th
ra n g e
(1 0a n d 2 0[l) . T h e re q u ire m e n tso n fre \ue000
q u e n c y
a n d
t i l t
a m p litu d e
h a v e
b e e n
th o ro u g h ly
a n a ly s e d
u s in g
th e
e x is tin g
IR
in s tru m e n ts . T h o u g h th e y h a v e b e e n
c o n s id e r a b ly
re d u c e d
w ith
re s p e c t
t o
w h a t th e y w e re1 0o r1 5 y e a rs a g o , th e y
re m a in
inte rm s o f m irro r b a n d w id th fa r
a b o v e
th o s e
n e c e s s a ry
fo r
th e
fie ld

s ta b iliz a tio n m o d e a n d re p re s e n t a te c h \ue000 n ic a l c h a lle n g e c o n s id e r in g th e r e la tiv e ly la rg e

s iz e
o f th e s e c o n d a ry m irro r. T h e
m a x im u m
c h o p p in g
fre q u e n c y
is
5 H ertz
fo r
a n
a m p litu d e
o f
2 a rc \ue000
m in u te s .
E a c h
s e c o n d a ry
m ir r o r u n it is
com \ue000
p o s e d
of a
m irro r a s s e m b ly a n d
o fa n
e le c tr o - m e c h a n ic a l a s s e m b ly .
T h e
e le c tro -m e c h a n ic a l
a s s e m b ly
is

c o m p o s e d o f th re e in d e p e n d e n t s ta g e s : th e fo c u s in g , c e n trin g a n d tilt/c h o p p in g s ta g e s . T h e m ir r o r a s s e m b lyisfix e d

t o
th e tilt a n d
c h o p p in g
s ta g e w h ic h
its e lf
isa tta c h e d to th e c e n trin g s ta g e a n d to
th e
fo c u s in g
s ta g e
w h ic h
p r o v id e s
th e
fin a l a tta c h m e n t to
th e
M 2
u n it s tru c \ue000
tu re .
T h e F o c u s in g S ta g e c o n s is ts o f a s e r\ue000
v o -c o n tro lle d
e le c tro -m e c h a n ic a l
a c \ue000

tu a to r g e n e ra tin g a m o v e m e n t o f th e M 2 m ir r o r a lo n g th e te le s c o p e o p tic a l a x is . T h e s a m e fo c u s in g s y s te m

isused when c h a n g in g b e tw e e n th e N a s m y th a n d th e C a s s e g r a in

fo c i
w h ic h
re q u ire s
a
c h a n g e
o f
m irro r
p o s itio n
o f
a b o u t
30m m .
P O W E R
A M P L IF IE R
LC U
C O O L IN G
R E C IR C U L AT IN G
D U C T
E L E C T R O N ICB O X E S
C O M P E N S AT IO N
S Y S T E M
M 2M IR R O R
A rc h ite c tu reo f th e
V LTM 2u n it.
T h e
C e n trin g
S ta g e
Is
u s e d
t o
k e e p
th e
la te ra l a lig n m e n t o f th e
M 2
m irro r
w ith
re s p e c t to th e
prim ary m irror. Itis
d e s ig n e d
in
s u c h
a w a y th a t th e
m irro r
v e rte x
ro ta te s a ro u n d
th e
m irro r c e n tre

o f c u rv a tu re . T h is h a s th e a d v a n ta g e o f n o t m o d ify in g th e te le s c o p e p o in tin g s o th a t o n ly c o m aisc o rre c te d . T h e e ffe c \ue000 tiv e m o v e m e n tisa c h ie v e d b y th re e s e r\ue000 v o -c o n tro lle d

a c tu a to rs
a c tin g
o n
th e
m ir r o r tilt a n d c h o p p in g
s ta g e w h ic h
i t \ue000
s e lfis
a tta c h e d
t o
th e
fo c u s in g
s ta g e
th ro u g h a th re e le g s p a n to g ra p h .
T h e
T ilt/C h o p p in g
S ta g e
t ilt s
th e
m irro r a ro u n d
a p o in t id e a lly lo c a te d
a t
th e m irro r v e rte x . T h is s ta g eise q u ip p e d
w ith
a
d y n a m ic a lly
b a la n c in g
s y s te m ,
in te n d e d
t o
c o m p e n s a te
th e
re a c tio n
fo rc e s w h ic h
c o u ld
c a u s e
o s c illa tio n
o f
th e e le c tro -m e c h a n ic a l a s s e m b ly .
T h e
C o n tro l S y s te m
c o n s is ts
o f th e
L o c a l C o n tro l U n it(L C U )a n d

of all the e le c tric a l a n d e le c tro n ic h a rd w a re u s e d t o

c o n tro l th e
o p e ra tio n
o f a ll th e
s y s \ue000
te m s in s id e th e M 2 U n it. E x c e p t fo r th e
p o w e r s u p p lie s
w h ic h
a re
fix e d
o n
th e
te le s c o p e s tru c tu re , th e c o n tro l s y s te m
is
p h y s ic a lly
in te g ra te d
in s id e
th e
M 2
U n it.
C O V E R
U P P E RP L A T E
F O C U S IN G
S T A G E
A C C E S SO P E N IN G
C E N T E R IN G
R O O
IN T E R N A L
C O N E
A C C E S S
O P E N IN G
C E N T E R IN G
P L A T E
C E N T E R IN G
A C T U A T O R
A llh e a t s o u r c e s in s id e th eM 2 U n it a re
c o o le d
in
o rd e r to
m a in ta in
th e
o u te r
's u rfa c e c lo s e to th e a m b ie n t a ir te m p e r \ue000
a tu re .
T h eM 2u n its a re a ls o e q u ip p e d w ith a
d e p lo y a b le S k y B a ffle , w h ic h
isused to
o b s tru c t
a n
a n n u la r
re g io n
o f th e

s k y im m e d ia te ly a ro u n d th eM 2U n it fo r p a r\ue000 tic u la r o b s e rv a tio n s .

T h e M ir r o r A s s e m b ly
T h e
1 .2 -m e tre
d ia m e te r

s e c o n d a ry m irro rs a re lig h tw e ig h te d c o n v e x h y p e r\ue000 b o lic

m irro rs
m ade
o fS ilic o n
C a rb id e .
T h is
m a te ria listo g e th e r w ith
B e r y lliu m
th e
m ost
s u ita b le
fo r
e x tre m e
lig h t\ue000
w e ig h t s tru c tu re s . T h e
S ilic o n
C a rb id e
h a s
h o w e v e r th e
g re a t a d v a n ta g e
o v e r
B e r y lliu m
t o
b e
cheaper and
p ro b a b ly
m o re
s ta b le
in
th e
lo n g
te rm . T h e
p a r\ue000
tic u la r te c h n o lo g y s e le c te d b y M a tra fo r
th e
m irro r
s u b s tra te
is
th e
R e a c tio n
B o n d e d
S ilic o n
C a rb id e
know n
a s
C E R A S T A R
a n d
p ro d u c e d
b y
C A R \ue000
B O R U N D U M . T h e w e ig h t o f th e fin is h e d
m irror w ill be
a b o u t3 3k g
a n d
its first
e ig e n fre q u e n c y a b o u t 8 0 0H z.The m ass3

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