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Cycle time calculation-unit_4_sensors_and_actuators.pdf

Cycle time calculation-unit_4_sensors_and_actuators.pdf

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05/26/2014

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Unit 4 Sensors and Actuators Assigned Core Text Reading for this Unit:
Groover, M. P. (2008),
 Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
, 3
rd
ed.,
Chapter 6.
 4.1 Unit Introduction4.2 Unit Learning Objectives4.3 Sensors4.4 Actuators4.5 Analogue-to-Digital Converters4.6 Digital-to-Analogue Converters4.7 Input/Output Devices for Discrete Data4.8 Unit Review4.9 Self-Assessment Questions4.10 Self-Assessment Answers
Section 4.1 Unit Introduction
  To achieve the goals of automation and process control, the computer mustcollect data from and transmit signals to the production process. This is done byusing hardware components that act as intermediaries between the controlsystem and the process itself. In the last unit process variables and parameterswere defined as being either continuous or discrete. The control computer tendsto use digital discrete (binary) data, however some of the data from the processmay be continuous and analogue. Therefore we must have some way toaccommodate this within the system, so that analogue data can be read in adigital format, and vice-versa. The main components that are required to supportthe interface between the controller and the process are:BULLETLISTSensors for measuring continuous and discrete process variablesActuators that drive continuous and discrete process parametersAnalogue to digital converters that convert continuous signals into binaryDigital to analogue converters that convert digital data into analogue signalsInput/output devices for discrete dataENDLISTFigure 4.1 illustrates the relationship between some of the major components. This unit explores each of these main components in turn.
 
 ActuatorsComputer Controller Transformation ProcessSensorsDACADCInput DevicesOutput DevicesContinuous and DiscreteVariablesContinuous and DiscreteParameters
 
Figure 4.1: Major components linking control to process
Section 4.2 Unit Learning Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:BULLET LISTClassify sensors as analogue or discreteSpecify desirable traits of sensorsDefine actuators and specify the different types availableSpecify the operating conditions of DC, AC and stepper electrical motorsOutline other types of actuators, other than electricalOutline the steps of the analogue-to-digital conversion processOutline the steps of the digital-to-analogue conversion processShow how discrete data is handled by computing systemsENDLIST
Section 4.3 Sensors
A sensor allows for the transformation of a signal, or other physical variable, fromone form to another—generally into a form that can be utilised more efficiently bythe system that deploys the sensor. In this sense, a sensor is what is termed as atransducer; that is, it translates a physical variable from a form that cannot beread by the process, to one which allows it to be interrogated successfully.
 
Generally, within the manufacturing process, the sensor collects different types of process data for feedback control.
KEYPOINT
A sensor is a transducer that allows for the transformation of a signal, or otherphysical variable, from one form to another.
END KEYPOINT
Different sensors types are outlined in Table 4.1; they can generally be classifiedaccording to the category of stimulus or physical variable they are required tomeasure. Table 4.1: Sensor categories by stimulus
Stimulus Example
Mechanical Positional variables, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, pressure, stress,strain, mass, densityElectrical Voltage, current, charge, resistance, conductivity, capacitance Thermal Temperature, heat, heat flow, thermal conductivity, specific heatRadiation Type of radiation (e.g. gamma rays, x-rays, visible light), intensity, wavelengthMagnetic Magnetic field, flux, conductivity, permeabilityChemical Component identities, concentration, pH levels, presence of toxic ingredients,pollutants
KEYPOINT
Sensors can be classified according to the category of stimulus or physicalvariable they are required to measure; these include stimulus that aremechanical, electrical, thermal, radiation, magnetic, and chemical in kind.
END KEYPOINT
Sensors may also be classified as analogue or discrete. A sensor that isanalogue in operation produces a continuous analogue signal whose valuevaries in an analogous manner with the variable being measured. A sensor thatis discrete produces an output that can only have certain values. The twodiscrete sensor types are binary and digital. A binary device produces one of twovalues, for example on/off. A digital device produces a digital output signal aseither a set of parallel bits; or a series of pulses that can be quantified. In bothcases the digital signal represents the quantity to be measured.Digital sensors are becoming more common owing to their compatibility tocomputing systems, and their relative ease-of-use. A new development in sensortechnology is the emergence of micro-sensors, tiny sensors only a few microns insize that are usually fabricated out of silicon. A list of common sensors andmeasuring devices used in automation, together with explanations or sources of further information is given in Table 4.2. Table 4.2: Common measuring devices and sensors used in automation
Device Explanation or further information:

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