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Cashflow Analysis Problems With Solution

Cashflow Analysis Problems With Solution

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Published by: SampaioVeiga on May 21, 2009
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Math Meth Oper Res (2009) 69:27–58DOI 10.1007/s00186-008-0228-7ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Optimal payout policy in presence of downside risk
Luis H. R. Alvarez
Teppo A. Rakkolainen
Received: 21 December 2007 / Accepted: 6 May 2008 / Published online: 24 June 2008© Springer-Verlag 2008
We analyze the determination of a value maximizing dividend payoutpolicy for a broad class of cash reserve processes modeled as spectrally negative jump diffusions. We extend previous results based on continuous diffusion modelsand characterize the value of the optimal dividend distribution strategy explicitly. Wealso characterize explicitly the values as well as the optimal dividend thresholds fora class of associated optimal liquidation and sequential lump sum dividend controlproblems. Our results indicate that both the value as well as the marginal value of the optimal policies are increasing functions of policy flexibility in the discontinuoussetting as well.
Dividend optimization
Downside risk 
Impulse control
Optimal stopping
Singular stochastic control
JEL Classification
1 Introduction
Dividends are one way in which firms distribute their retained earnings. The
dividend  payout policy
of a firm should specify the rules according to which dividends are paidout—most importantly, the size of a dividend payment and its timing. As far as theimpactofthedividendpolicyontheshareholdervalueisconsidered,acrucialquestionis the presence or absence of transaction costs and other similar market imperfections.
L. H. R. Alvarez
T. A. Rakkolainen (
)Department of Economics, Turku School of Economics, 20500 Turku, Finlande-mail: teppo.rakkolainen@tse.fiL. H. R. Alvareze-mail: luis.alvarez@tse.fi
28 L. H. R. Alvarez, T. A. Rakkolainen
ThecelebratedMiller–Modiglianitheoremstatesthatinafrictionlessmarket,dividendpolicy is irrelevant (cf.Miller and Modigliani 1961). However, in addition to the mostobvious example of a firm paying dividends to its shareholders, also bonuses given tocustomers by an insurance undertaking can be viewed as dividend distribution. If theinsurance entity is not a mutual company, then the customers and the shareholders of the company do not coincide. Given the importance of 
bonus policies
as competitiveelements, it is clear that the determination of a value-maximizing bonus policy is of interest.Mathematically,theproblemofdeterminingtheoptimaldividenddistributionpolicyin absence of transaction costs can be formulated as a singular stochastic control pro-blem. The singular controls can usually be expressed in terms of the local times of the underlying reserve process, i.e. they correspond to so-called barrier strategies, inwhich all retained earnings exceeding a given level are distributed to shareholders. If thereisafixedcostassociatedwithatransaction,theoptimaldividendpolicytakestheform of an impulse control consisting of lump sum dividends distributed at discretemomentsoftime.InAlvarezandVirtanen(2006)itisshownthatinadiffusionmodel, underrelativelygeneralconditions,thevalueoftheimpulsecontrolproblemisalwaysdominated by the value of the singular control problem. This is quite intuitive, as thesingular case is the one allowing the most flexible dividend policies and an impulsecontrol is an admissible dividend policy for the singular control problem as well. Itcould be argued that an impulse control corresponds more closely to actual reality.However, even if this argument would be accepted, we can still extract much usefulinformation from the solution of the singular problem—besides, despite the dearth of closed form expressions for the local time process itself, the decision rule implied bya local time control is intuitive and casts light on the required rate of return in theassociated discrete setting as well.In modeling the stochastic dynamics of the cash flow, continuous processes havebeen more popular than processes with discontinuities—largely due to their mathe-matically more convenient properties. The dividend problem has been considered,among many others, inTaksar(2000) andGerber and Shiu(2004) (in an insurance context utilizing a diffusion approximation of the surplus process). However, from arisk management point of view the assumption of path continuity neglects the
down-side risk 
, the possibility of an instantaneous deterioration in the value of the reservoirof assets. This risk can be significant, as is evidenced, for example, by the effectsof unanticipated stock market crashes which may cause large instantaneous drops inthe asset values. It is also well known that there is an asymmetry in the response of the market to new information: reactions to bad news are considerably stronger thanreactions togood news [this is thecelebrated
bad news principle
originally introducedinBernanke(1983)]. Moreover, in insurance applications most quantities of inter- est are naturally jump processes due to the discontinuous nature of the underlyingclaims process. These considerations have led to a growing interest in models withstochastic dynamics allowing jumps, and in recent years, several results have beenobtained. The most popular choice of dynamics appears to be the Lévy process inone form or another (the reason being again, of course, the relative tractability of this setting in comparison with more general Markovian dynamics; the standard refe-rence for the theory of Lévy processes isBertoin(1996)). We mention particularly
Optimal payout policy in presence of downside risk 29
Perry and Stadje(2000) andBar-Ilan et al.(2004), where a stochastic cash manage- ment model with dynamics characterized by a finite activity Lévy process is consi-dered, and the recent papers byAvram et al.(2007) andKyprianou and Palmowski (2007), where the authors investigate the optimal dividend policies under dynamicsgiven by a spectrally negative Lévy process.Boyarchenko(2004), in turn, considers the optimal timing of capital investment both in the single investment opportunitycase as well as in the sequential incremental investment case when the underlyingprice process follows an exponential Lévy process. To mention studies dealing withthe dividend payout problem in the context of insurance and risk theory applications,Azcue and Muler(2005) consider the problem of maximizing discounted expected cumulative dividends in the classical Cramér–Lundberg model when the insurer canchoose both dividend and reinsurance strategies, establishing the optimality of a bandstrategyinthismodel,whileSchmidli(2006)solvesthedividendpayoutproblemusing the HJB equation and inSchmidli(2008) an overview of optimal dividend strategies both in the classical risk model and its diffusion approximation are given. Earlier,Dassios and Embrechts(1989) discussed barrier type strategies in the context of pie- cewise deterministic Markov processes, whileShreve et al.(1984) considered the dividend distribution problem for a large class of continuous diffusion processes.
Optimal stopping
option pricing applications
in the context of (general andone-sided) Lévy processes have been by now studied extensively in literature; fora taste, seeBoyarchenko and Levendorski˘i(2000,2002,2005,2006,2007a,b,c) Gerber and Landry(1998),Gerber and Shiu(1998),Alili and Kyprianou(2005), Mordecki(2002a,b) andMordecki and Salminen(2007). Transforms applicable to solving many econometric and valuation problems for
jump diffusions havebeen considered inDuffie et al.(2000), whileBayraktar and Egami(2008) optimize venture capital or R&D investments in a jump diffusion model. A good overview onstochastic control of jump diffusions is given inØksendal and Sulem(2005). Inlightofthisincreased interestonvy models and recognition oftheimportanceof downside risk, it is to some extent surprising that the possibilities suggested by theclassical theory of diffusions and minimal superharmonic maps seem to have largelybeen neglected in the studies based on one-dimensional jump diffusion models [foran exception, seeMordecki and Salminen(2007)]. It is namely the case that several of the results derived for continuous diffusions via the classical theory (cf.Alvarez(2004)) can be shown to hold true for a relatively broad class of spectrally negative jump diffusions as well, as has been demonstrated for optimal stopping problems inAlvarez and Rakkolainen(2006). The main advantage of these results is naturally the reductionoftheconsidereddynamicstochasticcontrolproblemtostaticoptimization.Motivated by the previous considerations, our objective in this study is to considerthedeterminationoftheoptimaldividendpayoutstrategyofacompetitivecorporationwhen the retained earnings from which dividends are paid out evolves as a spectrallynegative jump diffusion with geometric (i.e. proportional) jumps. The jumps of theprocess reflect the unanticipated potentially significant downside risk faced by thecorporation. We extend the findings of Alvarez and Virtanen(2006), focusing on the dividend policy within a continuous diffusion setting, and delineate those circum-stances under which their findings hold in thediscontinuous setting as well.We stateasetofrelativelygeneralsufficientconditionsunderwhichtheoptimaldividend payout

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