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Design of a Simple Tunable-Switchable Bandpass Filter

Design of a Simple Tunable-Switchable Bandpass Filter

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Published by April Ford
Tunable filters
Tunable filters

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Published by: April Ford on Jul 30, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/09/2015

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Design of a Simple Tunable/ Switchable Bandpass Filter
Adaptive and multimode wireless equipment can benefit fromfilters that can vary their center frequency and bandwidth
By K. Jeganathan
National University of Singapore
 A 
s the frequency spectrum gets crowded,with an increasing number of communi-cation devices operating in a particularband, the role of the filter is becoming more andmore critical. Since multimode portable termi-nals and tunable transceivers are starting toappear in the market, the importance of tunablefilter is gaining momentum in the area of mobilecommunications. What is needed is a simple,cheap and small solution. Tunable filters great-ly simplify the transceiver design and play a major role, especially in the area of widebandand multimode transceivers. This articlereviews some of the fundamentals of the LCtuned resonator circuit and its implementationas a tunable or switchable band pass filter andtherefore provides a feasible solution for theabove applications in the UHF and VHF band.
LC resonator
The simplest band pass filter is a series orparallel LC tuned circuit. Figure 1(a) shows theresonant circuit that is connected to a source of resistance of 
 R
s
. Using the voltage division rule,it can be shown thatwhere,
 X 
t
=
 X 
 L
 X 
 /(
 X 
 L
+
 X 
)
 X 
=1/ 
 jwc X 
 L
=
 jwl
 After some mathematical manipulation, wewill arrive at(1)Figure 1(b) shows the corresponding frequen-cy response of the resonant circuit. As we see, near the resonance frequency, theslope of the curve is changing at a rate of 12dB/octave. This is caused by the presence of two
 jwL RwRLCjwL
 outinss
=+
20
102
log,()mag 
VXVXR
 outtints
= × +
 /()
32 ·
 A 
PPLIED
M
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& W 
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L
Figure 1(a). The resonant circuit connected to asource of resistance of
 R
s
.
L
Figure 1(b). Frequency response of the resonantcircuit shown in Figure 1(a).
 
34 ·
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reactances near the resonant frequency. Away from theresonance, only one reactance is dominating and there-fore the curve is changing at a rate of 6 dB/octave.
Loaded Q (selectivity factor)
The
Q
of a resonant circuit is defined to be the ratioof the center frequency to its 3 dB bandwidth. FromFigure 1(b), the loaded
Q
(selectivity factor) of the reso-nant circuit is given by(2)where
 f 
c
is the geometric center and
 f 
and
 f 
b
are thelower and upper cut-off frequencies of the circuit,respectively.The source and the load impedance also play animportant part in determining the loaded
Q
of the reso-nant circuit. In fact, the loaded
Q
can be well explainedby the following equation:(3)where
 R
p
= equivalent parallel resistance of source andload impedances, and
 X 
p
= either the inductive or capac-itive reactance at resonance.This explains that the increase in
 R
p
will increase the
Q
and the selectivity of the circuit. If 
 R
p
is fixed,
Q
canbe increased by decreasing 
 X 
p
. This will require smallinductance and large capacitance for the circuit.
Insertion loss
Insertion loss is defined to be the loss in the compo-nents due to their inherent resistive losses. It is a criti-cal parameter in any electrical component. The qualityfactor of an inductor is defined as
Q
=
 X 
 / 
 R
where
 X 
and
 R
are the reactance and resistance of the inductance.That is, high
Q
inductors are less lossy. The insertionloss in the LC resonator is mainly caused by the induc-tance
Q
as the capacitor
Q
is quite high over their use-ful frequency range.
Coupling of resonator circuits
Many applications require flat response in the passband and steeper roll-off outside the cut-off frequency. A single LC resonator circuit, such as in Figure 1(a), can-not satisfy the above requirements. It is possible, how-ever, to obtain such a frequency response from the LCresonators if two or more such circuits are coupled prop-
QR
 pp
=
 / 
Qfff 
 cba
=
 /()
L
Figure 2(a). Design of the capacitive coupling circuit.
L
Figure 2(b). Frequency response of the capacitive cou-pling circuit shown in Figure 2(a).
L
Figure 3(a). Design of the inductive coupling circuit.
L
Figure 3(b). Frequency response of the inductive couplingcircuit shown in Figure 3(a).
 
36 ·
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erly. Two such circuits are given in Figure 2(a) and 3(a).They are known as capacitive coupling and inductivecoupling circuit, respectively. The corresponding fre-quency responses are shown in Figures 2(b) and 3(b).Figure 4 compares the single resonator response withthat of two critically coupled resonators.The loaded
Q
of a critically coupled resonator isreduced by a factor of approximately 0.707 of a singleresonator. It is obvious from Figure 4 that the coupledresonator provides wider 3-dB bandwidth in the passband and steeper roll-off than most of the applicationsrequired. The value of the coupling components can bedetermined by the following formulas.For capacitive coupling,
Cc
=
 / 
Q
(4)where
= resonance circuit capacitance, and
Q
= loaded
Q
of a single resonator.For inductive coupling,
 L
 c
=
 LQ
(5)where
 L
= resonance circuit inductance, and
Q
= loaded
Q
of a single resonator. Another form of inductive coupling is through theuse of transformers. This method is not as easy as theother two methods, as many factors influence the trans-former coupling.
Tuneable/switchable filter
Figure 5(a) shows a possible configuration for a tun-able/switchable filter using two identical resonators cou-pled inductively. They can be coupled either capacitivelyor inductively. The response of the capacitively coupledcircuit is somewhat skewed toward the lower frequencyside, while the inductively coupled circuit response isskewed toward the higher end. The total capacitance of each resonator is made up of two capacitors and a var-actor diode as shown in the diagram. The total capaci-tance (
) of each resonator is given by
=
1
+
11
||
v
where
v
is the varactor capacitance. Tuning or switch-ing of the filter is achieved by applying a control voltageto the varactor. The control voltage is applied betweenthe capacitor
11
and the varactor so there is no effecton the control voltage on the main line of the filter. Bothvaractors are controlled by a single source. The highvalue resistors in the circuit provide enough isolationbetween the resonators and the control source.
Circuit design
 Assume a tunable/switchable filter from frequency
 f 
x
(MHz) to
 f 
 y
(MHz) is required with a 3 dB bandwidth of 
 f 
3dB
as shown in Figure 6.Initially, choose
 L
,
values to provide a resonant fre-
L
Figure 4. Resonator response compari-son of two critically coupled resonators.
L
Figure 5. Configuration of a tunable/switchable filter using two identicalresonators coupled inductively.
L
Figure 6. Tuning range parameters.

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