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Lecture Notes Without Images

Lecture Notes Without Images

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Published by: SUTHAN on May 30, 2009
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Lecture Notes
 Veterinary Histology  VMED 7123Dr. Charlotte L. Ownby Fall Semester 2004
For Lecture Notes with Color Images use go to:http://www.cvm.okstate.edu/instruction/mm_curr/histology/Hi
Under Course Outline, double click on Organ System of Interest
Digestive System I - lips, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus,stomach, small and large intestines
The digestive system includes the gastrointestinal tract as well as associated organs like thepancreas and liver. Digestive System I will cover the oral cavity (lips, tongue, major salivaryglands) and the gastrointestinal tract, i.e. esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. Thedigestive system consists throughout most of its length of a series of tubular organs lined withspecific types of epithelium to fulfill specific functions related to the digestion and absorption of nutrients from a food source and the elimination of waste products.
Ingestion and fragmentation of food
Fragmentation of food
Fragmentation and swallowing
 Salivary Glands
Fragmentation and moistening of food; swallowing
Passage of food from oral cavity to the stomach
Completion of fragmentation and beginning ofdigestion
 Small Intestine - duodenum
Digestion; emulsificaton of fats by enzymes from thepancreas and bile from the liver
 Small Intestine - jejunum &ileum
Completion of digestion and absorption
 Large Intestine- cecum
Absorption of water from liquid residue
 Large Intestine - colon
Absorption of water from liquid residue
 Large Intestine - rectum
Storage of feces prior to defecation
Route for defecation of feces outside the body
Oral Cavity
Organs that make up the oral cavity include the lips, teeth, tongue and major salivary glands.These organs function to obtain and ingest food, fragment it into smaller particles, moisten andswallow it. Teeth will not be covered in this course.
The lips aid in obtaining food and placing it in the mouth so that the teeth and tongue canmanipulate it and begin fragmenting it. Lips are covered by a stratified squamous epitheliumthat is usually keratinized on the outer surface and contains many hairs whereas the epitheliumon the inner surface is more moist and non-keratinized.
The tongue is a highly muscular organ used to manipulate food in the mouth and for the sense of taste. It is covered with stratified squamous epithelium that in the anterior part forms specializedstructures known as papillae that are involved in the manipulation of food as well as in the senseof taste. The skeletal muscle of the tongue is unique in that it runs in three different directionsallowing for a wide range of movements needed to properly manipulate foodstuffs. The types,numbers and distribution of papillae in the tongue vary greatly among species. In domesticanimals there are usually five different types of papillae.
1. Filiform papillae
are highly keratinized, sharply pointed and aid in mechanicallybreaking up food material. They are numerous in ruminants and cats where they are used inlapping milk.
2. Fungiform papillae
smooth with a rounded surface. They help manipulate the foodbut also have taste buds on their lateral surfaces.
3. Conical papillae
are somewhat larger than fungiform papillae, are used in manipulatingand breaking down ingested food. They can be distinguished from fungiform papillae bytheir larger size, tendency to project above other papillae and they do not have taste buds.
4. Foliate papillae
, covered with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, are leaf-shaped structures defined by an invagination of the mucous membrane on their sides. Manytaste buds on their lateral surfaces indicate their role in gustation. They are absent inruminants but well developed in the horse and dog.
5. Circumvallate papillae
are the largest (up to 1/8 inch diameter) papillae. They aresurrounded by a deep indentation of the mucous membrane and are not numerous. They donot rise above the surface of the tongue. Many taste buds are located on their sides. Serousvon Ebner's glands empty into the "moat" around these papillae and help keep it free of foodparticles.
Salivary Glands
The salivary glands all empty their secretions into the buccal cavity. They vary as to theirdistance from the buccal cavity, their size and the nature of their secretory products. They canalso be divided into major and minor glands. We will consider only the major salivary glands of which there are three:
parotid, sublingual and submandibular
. These glands all have thetubuloalveolar glandular structure and all are compound, i.e., composed of numerous secretoryendpieces connected by an elaborate system of branching ducts. In general saliva is a dilute,

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