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Carbon Dioxide 2

Carbon Dioxide 2

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Published by kraytos krieger
chemical of CO2
chemical of CO2

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Published by: kraytos krieger on Jun 20, 2009
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Carbon dioxide
"CO2" redirects here. For the postal district, seeCO postcode area.
 
Carbon dioxide
IUPAC name [show]Other namesCarbonic acid gas;carbonic anhydride;dry ice(solid)
Identifiers
Solid ( dry ice
 
Appearancecolorless, odorlessgasDensity1.562 g/mL
(solid at1 atm and −78.5 °C)
0.770 g/mL
(liquid at56 atm and 20 °C)
1.977 g/L
(gas at1 atm and 0 °C)
849.6 g/L
(supercritical fluid at150 atm and 30 °C
Melting point-78 °C, 194.7 K,-109 °F (
)Boiling point-57 °C, 216.6 K,-70 °F ((at5.185 bar))Solubilityinwater 1.45 g/L at 25 °C,100 kPaAcidity(p
 K 
a
)6.35, 10.33Refractive index(
n
D
)1.1120Viscosity0.07cPat −78 °C Dipole momentzero
Structure
Related compounds
n
,ε
, etc.ThermodynamicdataPhase behaviour Solid, liquid, gasSpectral dataUV, IR ,  NMR ,MS
 
Except where noted otherwise, data are givenfor materials in their standard state(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox references
Carbon dioxide
2
) is achemical compoundcomposed of twooxygen atoms covalently bondedto a singlecarbonatom. It is agasatstandard temperature and pressureand exists in Earth's atmospherein this state. Carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesisto make sugars which mayeither be consumed again inrespirationor used as the raw material to produce polysaccharidessuch asstarchandcellulose,  proteinsand the wide variety of other  organic compounds required for plant growth and development. It is produced duringrespirationby  plants, and by all animals,fungiandmicroorganismsthat depend on living and decaying plants for food, either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, a major component of thecarbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is generated as a by-product of thecombustion of fossil fuelsor the burning of vegetable matter, among other chemical processes. Large amounts of carbon dioxide are emitted fromvolcanoesand other geothermalprocesses such ashot springsandgeysers and by the dissolution of  carbonates in crustal rocks.As of March 2009,carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphereis at a concentration of 387 ppmby volume.
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide fluctuate slightly withthe change of the seasons, driven primarily by seasonal plant growth in the NorthernHemisphere. Concentrations of carbon dioxide fall during the northern spring andsummer as plants consume the gas, and rise during the northern autumn and winter as plants go dormant, die and decay. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas as it transmits visible lightbut absorbs strongly in theinfrared andnear-infrared. Carbon dioxide has no liquid state at pressures below 5.1atm. At 1 atm the gasdeposits  directly to a solid at temperatures below −78 °C and the solid sublimes directly to a gas above −78 °C. In its solid state, carbon dioxide is commonly called dry ice. CO
2
is an acidic oxide: an aqueous solution turns litmusfrom blue to pink. CO
2
is toxic in higher concentrations: 1% (10,000 ppm) will make some people feeldrowsy.
Concentrations of 7% to 10% cause dizziness, headache, visual and hearingdysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour.
Chemical and physical properties

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