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Lect 10 &11, Rudolf Dreikurs

Lect 10 &11, Rudolf Dreikurs



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Published by: m_siraj on Jul 28, 2009
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Logical Consequences:Rudolf DreikursLecture 10 & 11
“Children need encouragement like a plant needs water.”
Logical Consequences
 A key principle of logical consequences is thatchildren should be given a choice rather thanforced to behave as directed.
Dreikurs believe that although some degree of force could be applied to children a generationor two ago, current social conditions necessitateuse of more democratic procedures whendealing with children
In the past people of lower status, poor,labourers and people of colour and childrencould not openly rebel against authoritarianfigures
But, in this day and age people are less likely to be submissive to others
In addition to these changes in the social scenemore views and assumptions interpretinghuman personality and behaviour has come up.
Even behavior that appears destructive ispurposeful
Each behavior has the goal of self-determination
 We do not simply react to forces thatconfront us from the outside world.
Our behavior is the result of our own biased interpretations of the world
Logical Consequences cont
 Act not according to the reality thatsurrounds us but rather according to ourown subjective appraisal of it.
Eg: when a teacher selects a child to be aclassroom leader, other children may interpret this selection as a personalrejection
Unfortunately when situations are open topersonal interpretation, all of us routinely make unavoidable mistakes in perception
 When we choose how to behave, wealmost never have all the facts we need tomake adequate choices
Our choices therefore are very subjective,they lack the validity which more unbiasedinformation would provide.
Few human beings make a habit of investigating the conditions present inparticular situations and analyzing theassumptions they make about them.
Logical Consequences cont’
 We tend to act on these conditions as if they weretrue.
 As we mature we are more able to evaluatepossible consequences in advance and choose ourcourse of actions in more knowledgeable ways.
Human beings all have a need to belong and beaccepted
The combination of our human need foracceptance and our biased human perceptionssometimes help to create distortions in ourrelationships with others
Logical Consequences cont’
Children for example may not realize that
acceptance by others depends on an individual’s
contributing to the welfare of the group; insteadthey may strike against the very people who could best satisfy their needs.
 When children’s misguided perception lead them
to abuse others, they commonly feel the acuterejection such actions engender.
 When they sense rejection, they begin to withdraw and experience even greater deprivation.
Dreikurs believes that the disposition to view the world as unaccepting is in part related to the
order of one’s birth (Dreikurs & Grey; 1968)
The only child is the sole object of parentalattention.
 With the arrival of another sibling, however, theolder child is always dethroned.
Older children the attempt to regain lost status.
They may or may not feel successful in thisattempt.
Older children are prone to maladjustments
Second children are always is a position of havingolder, more capable rivals to overtake.
If they are successful, or if they find a different but constructive direction, they usually makesatisfactory adjustments.
If these children get the recognition they want,they may develop more daring and flexiblepersonalities.
However if they fail to achieve the status they desire, they may turn to destructiveness as way togain recognition
Often second children is very competitive
 When a third sibling arrive, second children may feel squeezed out.
They often find that their older siblings haveassumed a position of greater responsibility andtheir younger ones play the role of the baby.
Second children may not have the rights of olderchildren or the privileges of younger ones.
They may then interpret life as unfair and feel thatthere is no place for them.
Logical Consequences cont’
In large families, the effects of birth order extendto group of siblings.
There may be a group of oldest children, a groupof middle children and a group of youngestchildren.
 Within these groups, there may be an oldest child,a middle child and youngest child.
Knowing student’s place in the birth place helps
teachers better understand the basis for
development of the student’s personality and
Motives for Behavior
Misbehavior is orderly and purposeful and directedtoward achieving social recognition.
In many children the desire for attention goesunfulfilled.
 When children solicit recognition without successthey usually misbehave to gain it.
 All misbehavior is the result of a child’s mistaken
assumption about how to find a place and gainstatus.
Parents and teachers need to be aware of whatchildren do to be recognized and appreciated so thatthey can more fully accommodate them.
Motives for Behavior cont’
Gaining attention
Exercising power
Exacting revenge
Displaying inadequacy 
Gaining attention
 Attention is by far the most common goal formost young children.
Children who seek excessive attention are oftena nuisance in class.
They distract their teachers by showing off, being disruptive, being lazy, asking specialfavors, needing extra help on assignments,asking irrelevant questions, throwing thingsaround the room, crying, refusing to work unless teachers is right there, or overly eager toplease
They seem to function appropriately only as long
as they have their teacher’s approval.
Teachers often respond to these children by giving them too much attention
remindingthem often, coaxing them, showing pity forthem, or feeling annoyed at them.
Gaining attention
Giving attention to attention seeking children doesnot necessarily improve their behavior. When
attention is given in response to children’s
misbehavior, the misbehavior increases.
Four different attention behavior is identified
 Active-Constructive Behavior
Passive-Constructive Behavior
 Active-Destructive Behavior
Passive-Destructive Behavior

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