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“ Confronting the Charge of Heresy : Contemporary Islamic Philosophers in the Midst of Modernity and Postmodernity. From the eyes of Shahid Murtaza Mutahari, Said Nursi and Seyyed Hossein Nasr “

“ Confronting the Charge of Heresy : Contemporary Islamic Philosophers in the Midst of Modernity and Postmodernity. From the eyes of Shahid Murtaza Mutahari, Said Nursi and Seyyed Hossein Nasr “

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Published by Prof Yusuf Morales
Philosophy and faith has been considered dead in the eyes of the Philosophers of the west, while the rise of fundamentalism in the Islamic world has both given Philosophers a bad taste by labeling discoursive philosophy (Kalam) heretical. In today’s world where in the words of Marx, religion is viewed as the opium of the Masses, and the context that Philosopy has died in the social sphere , the discourse lies on how to make Islamic philosophy relevant to modern day means responding to the context of the loss of faith and the presence of commercialization amidst globalization.
There are three notable Islamic thinker-Philosophers whose works were known transected between the middle 1900's to the current century. Shahid Murtaza Mutahari is a well known Iranian Islamic scholar whoose works transected disciplines and focuses on the in -relation of Islamic spirituality, faith, reason and ethical conduct. Said Nursi, also known as "Beduizzaman" (turkish for wonder of the age), was born during the waning years of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey then was trapped in the middle of its collapse as an empire and in its place,a highly secularist republic, wherein religion and philosophywas confined to the private sphere. Nursi proposed an ethical and intellectual worldview that responded to an absence of faith with reason coupled with belief. Nursi proposed a model that eventually pushed the Turkish people to reinvigorate faith and belief in the midst of a collapsing certainty and the rise of secularism. Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, is both a religious and academic scholar, and is one of the few living Philosophers. He actually looks towards Philosophizing faith as an active return towards a religious worldview responsive to both the discourses of Modernism and post modernism.
It is impossible to see an Islamic discourse that can respond to post-modernity without a discussion of their ideas. The paper therefore, will attempt to look at their opinions as how to confront secularism as well as responding to the the absence of faith in the midst of a secular society with a special focus on the development of “akhlaq akhiruz zaman” (ethical modern man) as a concept.
Philosophy and faith has been considered dead in the eyes of the Philosophers of the west, while the rise of fundamentalism in the Islamic world has both given Philosophers a bad taste by labeling discoursive philosophy (Kalam) heretical. In today’s world where in the words of Marx, religion is viewed as the opium of the Masses, and the context that Philosopy has died in the social sphere , the discourse lies on how to make Islamic philosophy relevant to modern day means responding to the context of the loss of faith and the presence of commercialization amidst globalization.
There are three notable Islamic thinker-Philosophers whose works were known transected between the middle 1900's to the current century. Shahid Murtaza Mutahari is a well known Iranian Islamic scholar whoose works transected disciplines and focuses on the in -relation of Islamic spirituality, faith, reason and ethical conduct. Said Nursi, also known as "Beduizzaman" (turkish for wonder of the age), was born during the waning years of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey then was trapped in the middle of its collapse as an empire and in its place,a highly secularist republic, wherein religion and philosophywas confined to the private sphere. Nursi proposed an ethical and intellectual worldview that responded to an absence of faith with reason coupled with belief. Nursi proposed a model that eventually pushed the Turkish people to reinvigorate faith and belief in the midst of a collapsing certainty and the rise of secularism. Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, is both a religious and academic scholar, and is one of the few living Philosophers. He actually looks towards Philosophizing faith as an active return towards a religious worldview responsive to both the discourses of Modernism and post modernism.
It is impossible to see an Islamic discourse that can respond to post-modernity without a discussion of their ideas. The paper therefore, will attempt to look at their opinions as how to confront secularism as well as responding to the the absence of faith in the midst of a secular society with a special focus on the development of “akhlaq akhiruz zaman” (ethical modern man) as a concept.

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Published by: Prof Yusuf Morales on Oct 24, 2013
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05/15/2014

 
Aeta`lr 0<, 0295
 ‛ Eaocraotgoj tfl Efirjl ac Flrlsy = Eaotlhpariry Gskihge
Rfgkasapflrs go tfl Hgdst ac Hadlrogty iod Rasthadlrogty. Crahtfl lyls ac Ufifgd Hurtizi Hutifirg, Uigd Oursg iod Ulyyld
Fasslgo Oisr ‛
X Wusuc Harikls,RfD
 
 
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RIR Hgdylir Eaoclrloel. ‛Rfgkasapfy, Upgrgtuikgty, iod Uleukirgty‘ 
 
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s warkd wflrl go tfl wards ac Hirx, rlkgjgao gs vglwld is tfl apguh ac tfl Hissls, iod tfl eaotlxt tfit Rfgkasapy fis dgldgo tfl saegik spflrl , tfl dgseaursl kgls ao faw ta hinl Gskihge pfgkasapfy rlklviot tahadlro diy hlios rlspaodgoj ta tfl eaotlxt ac tfl kass ac cigtf iod tfl prlsloel ac eahhlregikgzitgao ihgdst jka`ikgzitgao.Tflrl irl tfrll oati`kl Gskihge tfgonlr-Rfgkasapflrs wfasl warns wlrl noawo triosletld`ltwllo tfl hgddkl 9722's ta tfl eurrlot elotury. Ufifgd Hurtizi Hutifirg gs i wlkk noawoGriogio Gskihge sefakir wfaasl warns triosletld dgsegpkgols iod caeusls ao tfl go -rlkitgao ac Gskihge spgrgtuikgty, cigtf, rlisao iod ltfgeik eaoduet. Uigd Oursg, iksa noawo is"@ldugzzihio" (turngsf car waodlr ac tfl ijl), wis `aro durgoj tfl wiogoj ylirs ac tflAttahio Lhpgrl, Turnly tflo wis trippld go tfl hgddkl ac gts eakkipsl is io lhpgrl iod go gtspkiel,i fgjfky sleukirgst rlpu`kge, wflrlgo rlkgjgao iod pfgkasapfywis eaocgold ta tfl prgvitlspflrl. Oursg prapasld io ltfgeik iod gotlkkletuik warkdvglw tfit rlspaodld ta io i`sloel ac cigtf wgtf rlisao eaupkld wgtf `lkglc. Oursg prapasld i hadlk tfit lvlotuikky pusfld tflTurngsf plapkl ta rlgovgjaritl cigtf iod `lkglc go tfl hgdst ac i eakkipsgoj elrtigoty iod tflrgsl ac sleukirgsh. Dr. Ulyyld Fasslgo Oisr, gs `atf i rlkgjgaus iod ieidlhge sefakir, iod gsaol ac tfl clw kgvgoj Rfgkasapflrs. Fl ietuikky kaans tawirds Rfgkasapfgzgoj cigtf is io ietgvlrlturo tawirds i rlkgjgaus warkdvglw rlspaosgvl ta `atf tfl dgseaursls ac Hadlrogsh iodpast hadlrogsh.Gt gs ghpassg`kl ta sll io Gskihge dgseaursl tfit eio rlspaod ta past-hadlrogty wgtfaut idgseussgao ac tflgr gdlis. Tfl piplr tflrlcarl, wgkk ittlhpt ta kaan it tflgr apgogaos is faw taeaocraot sleukirgsh is wlkk is rlspaodgoj ta tfl tfl i`sloel ac cigtf go tfl hgdst ac i sleukir
saeglty wgtf i splegik caeus ao tfl dlvlkaphlot ac ‛infkiq infgruz zihio‘ (ltfgeik hadlro
hio) is i eaoelpt.
 
Aeta`lr 0<, 0295
 ‛ Eaocraotgoj tfl Efirjl ac Flrlsy = Eaotlhpariry Gskihge
Rfgkasapflrs go tfl Hgdst ac Hadlrogty iod Rasthadlrogty. Crahtfl lyls ac Ufifgd Hurtizi Hutifirg, Uigd Oursg iod Ulyyld
Fasslgo Oisr ‛
X Wusuc Harikls,RfD
 
 
0
 
|
RIR Hgdylir Eaoclrloel. ‛Rfgkasapfy, Upgrgtuikgty, iod Uleukirgty‘ 
 
Earpus.Tflsl tfrll himar tfgonlrs go tfl Gskihge warkd, twa pastfuhaus, iod aol stgkk kgvgoj tfit irleaosgdlrld is `lieaos ac Gskihge pfgkasapfy go tfl Gskihge warkd. Lief fivgoj tflgr awopfgkasapfgeik havlhlots tfit irl eaosgdlrld
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eaosgdlrld ipgkkir ac tfl gotlkkletuik olxus iod kljiey ac Gskih.Ufifgd Hurtizi Hutifirg eio `l `lst dlserg`ld is tfl crugt ac Ghih Nfahlgog's gotlkkletuiklodlvaurs, wflrlgo fl ourturld tfraujf tghl iod wis lod ta ieeahpkgsf hioy ac GhihNfahlgog's hioditls go Grio. fl gs eaosgdlrld ta `l `atf Gskihge Murgst, Gskihge sefakirlxtriardgoigrl `ut iksa i Rfgkasapflr pir lxelkkloel. Fgs prghiry caeus wis ao tfl ltfgeikrlkitgvgsh iod hios olld car ltfgeik ietgao go tfl warkd.@ldguzzihio Uigd Oursg eio `l `lst dlserg`ld go tfl hijouh apus tfit fl fid ploold, tflPgsikl Our (trlitgsl ac kgjft) wflrlgo fl fis slkletgvl eahhlotirgls ao tfl Yurio is wlkk isprghirgkky caeusgoj ao fgs elotrik tflhl, tfl kass ac cigtf wfgef fis kld hiongod gota tfl irhsac sleukirgsh.Ulyyld Fasslgo Oisr gs eaosgdlrld ta `l aol ac tfl kgvgoj Rfgkasapflrs ac tfl warkd, i sefakirwfa usls Rfgkasapfy is i dgseaursl go kaangoj it tfl warkd tfraujf tfl Gskihge warkdvglw.Ugttgoj go tfl hgddkl ac `atf tfl Ufgi , Uuoog iod Uucg tridgtgaos, fl wlivls i warkdvglw gotfl tridgtgaos ac tfl Gskihge Rfgkasapfgeik histlrs iod ylt hirvlks tfl warkd wgtf faw flprlslots tfl kavl ac pfgkasapfy iod gts lvakutgao tfraujfaut tghl.Go tfl eurrlot warkd ac Rfgkasapfy wfgef fis oaw caeusld ao lgtflr Eaotgolotik ar i`strietRfgkasapflrs, tflrl gs io lxgstlotgik olld ta prlslot i suhhiry ac tflgr warns go pissgoj ista faw tflgr warns gotlrkaen iod wlivl go tfl kaangoj ac io Gskihge warkdvglw tfit gs fgojldao i Rfgkasapfgeik uodlrpgoogoj.Aol hust eaosgdlr tfl warkd wflrlgo tflsl tfrll tfgonlrs lxgst. Gt gs i plrgad wflrl tflGskihge Eikgpfitl fis jriduikky suon gota a`kgvgao wfgkl sefakirs fid trgld tflgr `lst tagotlrprlt tfgs lvlot go lgtflr ipaeikyptge ar hltipfysgeik tlrhs.Tfl plrgad ac tflsl tfrll tfgonlrs gotlrslet crah tfl Turngsf Ashiokg plrgad, tfl Rifkivgplrgads, tfl Pgsl ac tfl Gskihge Plpu`kge iod tfl past Gskihge rloigssioel plrgad. Tflslplrgads siw tfl lotry ac wlstlro kg`lrik gdlis, `atf crah i eipgtikgst iod Hirxgst hgkglu.Fawlvlr, tflsl tfrll tfgonlrs saujft prghirgky wiys is ta faw tfl Huskgh \hhif sfaukdiddrlss saegltik gkks wgtfaut usgoj ikglo piridgjhs wfgef saujft ta plrpltuitl hitlrgikgstdgseaursls.
 
Aeta`lr 0<, 0295
 ‛ Eaocraotgoj tfl Efirjl ac Flrlsy = Eaotlhpariry Gskihge
Rfgkasapflrs go tfl Hgdst ac Hadlrogty iod Rasthadlrogty. Crahtfl lyls ac Ufifgd Hurtizi Hutifirg, Uigd Oursg iod Ulyyld
Fasslgo Oisr ‛
X Wusuc Harikls,RfD
 
 
5
 
|
RIR Hgdylir Eaoclrloel. ‛Rfgkasapfy, Upgrgtuikgty, iod Uleukirgty‘ 
 
Uigd Oursg wis i Turngsf sefakir `aro durgoj tfl wiogoj ylirs ac tfl Ashiokg Nfgkicif wflrltfl gockuloel ac tfl Attahios wlrl `lgoj suppkiotld `y tfl jrawgoj wlstlro ghplrgikgsteakaogiks sprautgoj ao Attahio kiods. ictlr tfl sueelsscuk @ldaugo uprgsgoj areflstritld `yEak Kiwrloel ac Iri`gi, Huskgh kiods jriduikky wlrl slpiritld gota "tlrrgtargls idhgogstlrld`y wlstlro pawlrs."Tfl eaoqulst ac Ljypt lvlo ikkawld Huskghs ta kaan it i wlstlro ldueitgao durgoj tfit lriis i syh`ak car gotlkkletuik idvioelhlot. Oursg vglwld tfgs jriduik dleiy ac GskihgeGotlkkletuik prawlss is i sgjo ac sahltfgoj dllplr iod saujft ta govlstgjitl tfgs hikigsl.Ughuktiolaus ta tfgs lri wis tfl jriduik dleiy ac tfl Yimir ruklrs wfa wlrl `lgoj `lgojaut`axld `y tfl Tsirgst ruklrs ac tfl lri. Tfgs wis sueelldld `y tfl Rifkivg ruklrs wfaghpasld io ghpassg`kl systlh ac javlroioel tfit `ardlrld ao Tyrioy iod "plrsgiogcgeitgao"tfraujf rlvgvik ac gts ]araistrgio flrgtijl iod ikkgioel wgtf tfl Zlst wfgef ikkawld wlstlrokg`lrik iod hirxgst gdlis ta efikklojl tfl Gskihge sefakirs ao tfl saegik ioikysgs iod ekissioikysgs. Tfgs wis tfl lovgraohlot tfit `atf Ufifgd Hutifirg iod Ulyyld Fasslgo Oisr wis`aro gota.Ufifgd Hutifirg, `lgoj `aro gota i cihgky ac sefakirs wlot gota ekissgeik gskihge studgls goYuh, `leahgoj i studlot ac jrlit gskihge sefakirs kgnl Ulyyld Hufihhid Ti`iti`igl iodGhih Nfahlgog (YU) iod atflr Gskihge Kuhgoirgls ac Yuh. Fgs lvlotuik slttkgoj go tfl\ogvlrsgty ac Tlfrio wis i dgrlet rlspaosl ta tfl Ghih's hioditl ta sfirl Gskih ta tfl\ogvlrsgty. Fgs warnds wlrl eklirky gotlkkletuik rlspaosls ta studlots qulrrgls gota tfl Gskihgeplrslpletgvl iod i rlspaosl ijigost wlstlro pfgkasapfgeik gdlis, driwgoj crah tfl wlkk ac niutfir (tfl Uefaak ac Ifkuk @iyt), Ufifgd Hutifirg prlslotld dgseaursls ao tfl olld caryiqllo (elrtigoty) go hittlrs ac kgcl. `lkglc iod cigtf go fgs qulst car hliogoj.Ulyyld Oisr wis `aro gota io cihgky ac Payik sefakirs iod pfysgegios wfa wlrl pirt ac tflGhplrgik ieidlhge egrekl, tfrust gota tfl efikklojl ac uodlrstiodgoj tfl wlst iod tfl Gskihgetridgtgao is suef fl wlot gota tfl wlst ta uodlrstiod gt tfraujf ieidlhge studgls is wlkk islojijgoj go tfl ekissgeik studgls ac Gskihge tlxts uodlr tfl Gskihge sefakirs ac tfl Diy `atfUfgi, suoog iod Uucg> ghhlrsgoj fghslkc go tfl study ac noawkldjl iod tfl dgseaursl ac noawkldjl "Rfgka-sacgi"Tfl lotry ac wlstlro pawlrs gota tfl Huskgh warkd rigsld slvlrik ergtgeik qulstgaos ac tfl diy. Ihaoj tflh wis tfl klvlk ac systlhitge dau`t klvlkld it Gskih gtslkc, it tfl warkdvglw gtlspausld i`aut tfl sgojukirgty ac lxgstloel (wifdit ik wumuud) wfgef gs hiogclstld tfaujfTiwfgd iod tfl \ogty ac uodlrstiodgoj (wifdituk sfufaad) hiogclstld tfaujf gskihedgikletgeik systlh.

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