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ductiity and seismic behaviour

ductiity and seismic behaviour

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Published by sakolkong
ductiity and seismic behaviour
ductiity and seismic behaviour

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Published by: sakolkong on Oct 31, 2013
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8
Ductility
 and
 seismicbehavior
S K
 Ghosh
 and
 Murat
 Saatcioglu
8.1
 ntroduction
It has
 been shown
 for
 quite some time that concrete becomes lessdeformable
 or
 more brittle
 as its
 compressive strength increases. Figure
 8.1
shows
 a
 high-strength concrete cylinder being
 tested
 in
 compression.
 The
failure
 is
 obviously explosive, indicating that
 the
 material
 is
 brittle.
 The
same
 fact
 is
 depicted
 in a
 different
 way by
 Fig.
 8.2
1
 which shows
 the
Fig.
 8.1
 Testing
 of a
 high-strength
 concrete cylinder
 
Fig.
 8.2
 Complete
 axial
 stress
 versus axial strain curves for
 normal
 weight
 concretes
 of
different
 strengths
1
axial
 stress-strain curves
 and
 axial-lateral strains curves
 in
 compression
 ofnormal
 weight concretes having
 different
 strength levels. Low-strengthconcrete obviously can develop only a modest stress level, but it can sustain
that
 stress over
 a
 significant
 range
 of
 strains. High-strength concrete attains
a
 much higher stress level,
 but
 then cannot sustain
 it
 over
 any
 meaningful
range of strains. The load-carrying capacity drops precipitously beyond thepeak
 of the
 stress-strain relationship.Figure
 8.3
1
 shows the stress-strain curves of lightweight concretes having
different
 compressive strengths.
 These
 curves were obtained
 by
 Ahmad
 in
an
 investigation
 on
 mechanical properties
 of
 high strength lightweight
Unit
 weight-
 150.75
 Ibs/ft
3
Strain rate
 =
 10
 (ae/sec
 J
1
 (ksi)
Stesk
Lateralstrain,
8
2
 =
 S
3
 (in/in)Axial
 strain,
S
1
 (in/in)fc(ksi)LightweightPeakInflection
point
Data points
Strain
Fig.
 8.3 Stress-strain
 curves
 of
 lightweight
 concretes
 of
 different
 strengths
1
Ste
k
 
Strain
 ig
8 4
 Comparison
 of
 stress-strain curves
 of
 normal
 weight and
 lightweight
 concretes
1
aggregate concrete which was conducted at North Carolina State Univer-
sity.
 In Fig.
 8.4,
1
 a selected comparison is made between the stress-strain
curves
 of
 normal weight
 and
 lightweight concretes having essentially
 the
same compressive strengths of about 4000 and
 12,000psi
 (27.6 and
82.8MPa).
 It can be seen that for similar strengths, lightweight concrete
exhibits
 a steeper drop of the descending part of the stress-strain curvethan normal weight concrete. In other words, lightweight concrete is amore brittle material than normal weight concrete of the same strength.The lack of deformability of high-strength
 concrete does
 not necessarilyresult in a lack of deformability of high-strength concrete members thatcombine this relatively brittle material with reinforcing steel. This interest-
ing
 and important aspect is discussed in detail in this chapter. Theapplication
 of
 high-strength
 concrete
 in
 regions
 of
 high seismicity
 is
discussed
 at the end of the
 chapter. Such application depends,
 of
 course,on adequate inelastic deformability of high-strength concrete structuralmembers under reversed cyclic loading of the type induced by earthquakeexcitation.
8.2
 Deformability
 of high strength
 concrete
 beams
Normal
 weight
 concrete beams
 under
 monotonic
 loading
Perhaps the earliest investigation on the deformability of high-strengthconcrete beams
 was
 carried
 out by
 Leslie, Rajagopalan
 and
 Everard.
2
They tested
 12
 under-reinforced rectangular beams with
 f
c
'
 rangingbetween 9300
 and
 ll,800psi
 (64 and
 81MPa).
 The
 specimen details
 are
shown
 in
 Fig.
 8.5 and
 Table
 8.1.
 It was
 observed that
 as the
 reinforcementratio p increased, the 'maximum ultimate
 deflection'
 decreased, and the
Normal
 weightLightweightNormal weight
Lightweight
Data
 points
Stesk

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