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Probability, information revision notes from GCSE maths TutorRatings: (0)|Views: 1,285|Likes: 1

Published by gcsemathstutor

Probability is a number between 0 and 1, and is the chance of a particular outcome happening.Important topics here on probability for GCSE maths - independent & mutually exclusive events, tree diagrams, rules for AND OR events.

Probability is a number between 0 and 1, and is the chance of a particular outcome happening.Important topics here on probability for GCSE maths - independent & mutually exclusive events, tree diagrams, rules for AND OR events.

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/18446514/Probability-information-revision-notes-from-GCSE-maths-Tutor

08/30/2010

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original

Info. Handling

Probability

topic notes

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

The meaning of probabilityProbability is the chance of a particular outcome happening.Probability is a number between 0 and 1.The probability of an event '

C

' occuring when the outcome is certain (ie there is no otheroutcome) is 1.written P(

C

)=1An event '

I

' which is impossible has a probability of 0.written P(

I

)=0The probability of an event '

N

'

not

happening = 1 - (probability of it happening '

H

')written P(

N

)= 1 - P(

H

)The sum of probabilities is always 1P(

N

) + P(

H

)= 1

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

Info. Handling

Probability

topic notes

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

Independent eventsThese are events/outcomes that are independent of eachother. This means that one hasno effect on the other (eg rolling two dice).The

AND

rule is used to relate the probability of two independent events occuring.If P(M) is the probability of an event M happening and P(N) for an event N.Then the probability of both events occuring is given by:P(M + N) = P(M) x P(N)John picks a card at random from a pack of 52 cards and throws a dice.What is the probability that he will pick the ace of spades and throw a six?Independent events can be tabulated against eachother in a

possibility space

table.

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

Info. Handling

Probability

topic notes

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

Example #2There are two spinners, one with four different colours and the other with the first fiveletters of the alphabet. If both are spun independently, the table below shows all thepossible outcomes.number spinner

12345red

1,red 2,,red 3,red 4,red 5,red

green

1,green 2,,green 3,green 4,green 5,green

blue

1,,blue 2,blue 3,blue

4,blue 5,blueorange

1,,orange 2,orange 3,orange 4,orange 5,orangecolourspinner

yellow

1,,yellow 2,yellow 3,yellow 4,yellow 5,yellowThere are 5 x 5 (=25) possible outcomes.The chances on getting blue

and

a number more than 3 are shown in blue. In other words,2 chances in 25 (ie

0.08

)This can be verified using the AND rule.probability of getting blue is P(blue) = 0.2probability of getting a number > 3 is 2/5 (0.4)probability of both events happening is 0.2 x 0.4 =

0.08

GCSE Maths Tutor www.gcsemathstutor.com info@gcsemathstutor.com

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