Study of Hard Disk Drive(HDD).
A hard disk drive is a non-volatile storage device which storesdigitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. Strictlyspeaking, "drive" refers to a device distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive andits tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk. Early HDDs had removable media;however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole toequalize air pressure) with fixed media.A hard drive is a mass storage device found in all PCs (with some exclusions)that is used to store permanent data such as the operating system, programs and user files.The data on hard drives can be erased and/or overwritten, the hard drive isclassed as a non-volatile storage device which means it doesn't require a constant power supply in order to retain the information stored on it (unlike RAM).The hard drive works in parallel with the memory (RAM) and themotherboard to read and write data through the system.Operating systems and applications including games requirements for disk space has increased vastly in recent times. An example of this is a typical WindowsXP install uses approx 1.5GB of space, a typical PC DVD Game will need just under 5GB.
HDDs (introduced in 1956 as data storage for an IBM accountingcomputer) were originally developed for use with general purpose computers. Duringthe 1990s, the need for large-scale, reliable storage, independent of a particular device, led to the introduction of embedded systems such as RAID arrays, network attached storage (NAS) systems and storage area network (SAN) systems that provideefficient and reliable access to large volumes of data. In the 21st century, HDD usageexpanded into consumer applications such as camcorders, cell phones (e.g. the Nokia N91), digital audio players, digital video players (e.g. the iPod Classic), digital videorecorders, personal digital assistants and video game consoles.
The HDD is one PC component that even the most intrepid do-it yourself should not attempt to open and repair. Factory technicians working in dust-free,environmentally pure clean rooms are the only people who should open the drivecasing.
HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic materialdirectionally, to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit. They read the data back bydetecting the magnetization of the material. A typical HDD design consists of aspindle which holds one or more flat circular disks called platters, onto which the dataare recorded. The platters are made from a non-magnetic material, usually aluminumalloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material. Older disks usediron (III) oxide as the magnetic material, but current disks use a cobalt-based alloy..The platters are spun at very high speeds. Information is written to a platter as itrotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close (tens of nanometers in new drives) over the magnetic surface. The read-and-write head is usedto detect and modify the magnetization of the material immediately under it. There isone head for each magnetic platter surface on the spindle, mounted on a common arm.