Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
1401.7018

1401.7018

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0|Likes:
Published by crocoali
aaa
aaa

More info:

Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: crocoali on Jan 29, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/29/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Locality and Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics
Chiu Man Ho
and Stephen D. H. Hsu
Department of Physics and Astronomy,Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
(Dated: January 29, 2014)
Abstract
Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics generically lead to nonlocal effects which violaterelativistic causality. We study these effects using the functional Schrodinger equation for quantumfields and identify a type of nonlocality which causes nearly instantaneous entanglement of spacelikeseparated systems.
Electronic address: cmho@msu.edu
Electronic address: hsu@msu.edu
1
 
I. INTRODUCTION
The linear structure of quantum mechanics has deep and important consequences, suchas the behavior of superpositions. One is naturally led to ask whether this linearity isfundamental, or merely an approximation: Are there nonlinear terms in the Schrodingerequation?Nonlinear quantum mechanics has been explored in [16]. It has been observed that the
 fictitious 
 violation of locality in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment in conven-tional linear quantum mechanics might become a
 true 
 violation due to nonlinear effects [7, 8] (in [8] signaling between Everett branches is also discussed). This might allow superlumi-nal communication and violate relativistic causality. These issues have subsequently beenwidely discussed [9].Properties such as locality or causality are difficult to define in non-relativistic quan-tum mechanics (which often includes, for example, “instantaneous” potentials such as theCoulomb potential). Therefore, it is natural to adopt the framework of quantum field theory:Lorentz invariant quantum field theories are known to describe local physics with relativis-tic causality (influences propagate only within the light cone), making violations of theseproperties easier to identify.Furthermore, in this paper we are interested in
 fundamental 
 nonlinearity in quantummechanics, which is another reason for considering quantum field theory. If the evolutionof quantum states is nonlinear, that should also be the case when the states in questiondescribe quantum fields, not just individual particles.
II. LOCALITY AND SEPARABILITY
Quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of a wavefunctional Ψ[
φ
(
x
)
,t
] where
φ
(
x
) is a time-independent field configuration and
 t
 is the time. The functional Schrodingerequation is then given by
i∂ 
t
 Ψ[
φ,t
] = ˆ
 Ψ[
φ,t
]
 .
 (2.1)The Hamiltonian operator ˆ
 is a sum of local operators at points
 x
. For example, in scalarfield theory,ˆ
 = 12
 
 d
3
x
 δ 
2
δφ
2
(
x
) +
|∇
φ
|
2
+
 m
2
φ
2
 .
 (2.2)2
 
Let Ψ[
φ,t
] =
 ψ
A
[
φ
A
,t
]
×
ψ
B
[
φ
B
,t
]
×···
, where
 φ
A
(
x
) is a field configuration with supportin the compact region
 A
 (i.e.,
 φ
A
(
x
) is zero for
 x /
 A
), and similarly for
 φ
B
. Assume that
A
 and
 B
 are widely separated, and that the remaining factors represented by
 ···
 do notdepend on the field configuration in
 A
 or
 B
. This direct product structure implies that thereis no entanglement between regions
 A
 and
 B
.It is easy to show that the Schrodinger equation splits into separate equations governing
ψ
A
 and
 ψ
B
:
i∂ 
t
ψ
A
[
φ
A
,t
] = ˆ
A
ψ
A
[
φ
A
,t
]
 ,
 (2.3)and similarly for
 B
. The subscript on the Hamiltonian ˆ
A
 emphasizes that it only refers tothe part of the spatial integral in (2.2) over region
 A
. The part of the integral over region
B
 only acts on
 ψ
B
, etc.Thus, in the absence of entanglement between
 A
 and
 B
, quantum mechanics in eachregion can be studied independently of the other. In a relativistic field theory, entanglementand other influences can propagate no faster than the speed of light, so that if 
 A
 and
 B
are widely separated and initially unentangled, they will remain so for a period of time thatdepends on the separation.Now, consider a nonlinear generalization of the Schrodinger equation:
i∂ 
t
 Ψ =
 ˆ
 + ˆ
,
Ψ)
Ψ
 .
 (2.4)The nonlinear term ˆ
 will generically couple
 ψ
A
 and
 ψ
B
. Regardless of the distance betweenregions
 A
 and
 B
, the two initially unentangled states
 ψ
A
 and
 ψ
B
 influence each other’sevolution, and typically become entangled almost instantaneously. This time evolution isillustrated in Fig. 1.One can also understand this from the perturbation theory point of view. Treating ˆ
 asa perturbation, we can expand
 ψ
A
 and
 ψ
B
 as:
ψ
A
 =
 ψ
(0)
A
 +
 ψ
(1)
A
 +
···
 ;
 ψ
B
 =
 ψ
(0)
B
 +
 ψ
(1)
B
 +
···
 .
 (2.5)Keeping the perturbations up to the lowest order, the functional Schrodinger equation be-comes1
ψ
(0)
A
i∂ 
t
 
 ˆ
 ψ
(1)
A
 + 1
ψ
(0)
B
i∂ 
t
 
 ˆ
 ψ
(1)
B
 + ˆ
(
ψ
(0)
A
 ,ψ
(0)
B
 ) = 0
 .
 (2.6)3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->