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2 Oracle DBA Faq

2 Oracle DBA Faq

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Oracle DBA FAQ - Oracle Basic Concepts
This is a collection of FAQ for Oracle DBA on fundamental concepts. The clear answersand sample scripts provided can be used as learning tutorials or interview preparationguides. Topics included in this FAQ are:
What Is Oracle?
What Is an Oracle Database?
What Is an Oracle Instance?
What Is a Parameter File?
What Is a Server Parameter File?
What Is a Initialization Parameter File?
What is System Global Area (SGA)?
What is Program Global Area (PGA)?
What Is a User Account?
What Is the Relation of a User Account and a Schema?
What Is a User Role?
What is a Database Schema?
What Is a Static Data Dictionary?
What Is a Dynamic Performance View?Descriptions of some key concepts are based on Oracle documentations.
What Is Oracle?
Oracle is a company. Oracle is also a database server, which manages data in a verystructured way. It allows users to store and retrieve related data in a multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this isaccomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also preventsunauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery.
What Is an Oracle Database?
An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a big unit in the database server.
What Is an Oracle Instance?
Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a databaseis started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle allocates amemory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracleprocesses. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an Oracleinstance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database'sdata efficiently and serve the one or multiple users of the database.
What Is a Parameter File?
 
A parameter file is a file that contains a list of initialization parameters and a value for each parameter. You specify initialization parameters in a parameter file that reflect your particular installation. Oracle supports the following two types of parameter files:
Server Parameter Files - Binary version. Persistent.
Initialization Parameter Files - Text version. Not persistent.
What Is a Server Parameter File?
A server parameter file is a binary file that acts as a repository for initializationparameters. The server parameter file can reside on the machine where the Oracledatabase server executes. Initialization parameters stored in a server parameter file arepersistent, in that any changes made to the parameters while an instance is running canpersist across instance shutdown and startup.
What Is a Initialization Parameter File?
An initialization parameter file is a text file that contains a list of initialization parameters.The file should be written in the client's default character set. Sample initializationparameter files are provided on the Oracle distribution medium for each operatingsystem. A sample file is sufficient for initial use, but you will probably want to modify thefile to tune the database for best performance. Any changes will take effect after youcompletely shut down and restart the instance.
What is System Global Area (SGA)?
The System Global Area (SGA) is a memory area that contains data shared between alldatabase users such as buffer cache and a shared pool of SQL statements. The SGA isallocated in memory when an Oracle database instance is started, and any change inthe value will take effect at the next startup.
What is Program Global Area (PGA)?
A Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that is allocated for each individualdatabase session and it contains session specific information such as SQL statementdata or buffers used for sorting. The value specifies the total memory allocated by allsessions, and changes will take effect as new sessions are started.
What Is a User Account?
A user account is identified by a user name and defines the user's attributes, includingthe following:
Password for database authentication
Privileges and roles
Default tablespace for database objects
Default temporary tablespace for query processing work space
What Is the Relation of a User Account and a Schema?
User accounts and schemas have a one-to-one relation. When you create a user, youare also implicitly creating a schema for that user. A schema is a logical container for the
 
database objects (such as tables, views, triggers, and so on) that the user creates. Theschema name is the same as the user name, and can be used to unambiguously refer toobjects owned by the user.
What Is a User Role?
A user role is a group of privileges. Privileges are assigned to users through user roles.You create new roles, grant privileges to the roles, and then grant roles to users.
What is a Database Schema?
A schema is a collection of logical structures of data, or schema objects. A schema isowned by a database user and has the same name as that user. Each user owns asingle schema. Schema objects can be created and manipulated with SQL and include:tables, views, and other types of data objects.
What Is a Database Table?
A database table is a basic unit of data logical storage in an Oracle database. Data isstored in rows and columns. You define a table with a table name, such as employees,and a set of columns. You give each column a column name, such as employee_id,last_name, and job_id; a datatype, such as VARCHAR2, DATE, or NUMBER; and awidth. The width can be predetermined by the datatype, as in DATE. If columns are of the NUMBER datatype, define precision and scale instead of width. A row is a collectionof column information corresponding to a single record.
What Is a Table Index?
Index is an optional structure associated with a table that allow SQL statements toexecute more quickly against a table. Just as the index in this manual helps you locateinformation faster than if there were no index, an Oracle Database index provides afaster access path to table data. You can use indexes without rewriting any queries.Your results are the same, but you see them more quickly.
What Is an Oracle Tablespace?
An Oracle tablespace is a big unit of logical storage in an Oracle database. It ismanaged and used by the Oracle server to store structures data objects, like tables andindexes.Each tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more files called datafiles,which are physical structures that conform to the operating system in which Oracle isrunning.
What Is an Oracle Data File?
An Oracle data file is a big unit of physical storage in the OS file system. One or manyOracle data files are organized together to provide physical storage to a single Oracletablespace.
What Is a Static Data Dictionary?

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