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Numerical Simulation

Numerical Simulation

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Published by: hkabir_ju on Nov 02, 2009
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09/23/2010

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Chapter 4
Numerical Simulation
We present the results of the traffic flow simulation for various traffic flow parameters.We develop a computer program for the explicit upwind difference scheme andimplement the scheme for artificially generated initial and boundary data and verify thewell-known qualitative behaviors of different flow variables. We also estimate the error of the numerical scheme. Finally we try to apply our model for the traffic flow analysis ina 10 (ten) km range of Dhaka-Aricha highway.
4.1 Incorporation of initial & boundary data
To obtain the density profile we have used the explicit upwind difference scheme.In order to use the scheme we have made the following assumptions:
We have considered a highway in a range of 10 (ten) Km.
We consider the number of vehicles of various points at a particular time asinitial data and constant boundary
( )
.1.0/21,0
km
=
 ρ 
.
We have estimated maximum density which is parameterized by
max
 ρ 
in thetraffic flow model. To evaluate
max
 ρ 
, we have used the following equation 
( )
c x
*,0max
max
ρ  ρ 
=
 For this we use the initial density for 
( )
 x
,0
 ρ 
and take
10
=
c
 as a constant.Using initial and boundary value on explicit upwind difference scheme, we can forecastthe traffic flow model.
Numerical Simulation
34
 
4.2 Algorithm for the numerical solution of traffic flowmodel
To find the numerical solution of the IBVP (2.5) we have to store some variables andvalues which are presented in the following algorithm.
Input:
nx
 
and
n
the number of spatial and temporal grid points respectively. 
tf  
, the right end point of 
[ ]
,0
.
 x
, the right end point of 
[ ]
b
,0
.
0
 ρ 
, the initial density, apply as a initial condition.
a
 ρ 
, the vehicles at starting point, apply as a boundary value.
max
, maximum velocity.
Output:
( )
 x
,
 ρ 
 
the solution matrix.
Initialization:
nd
0
=
,
the temporal grid size
nxbdx
0
=
, the spatial grid size.
dxdt  gm
max*
=
, the courant number.
 gm gma
=
1
10
=
c
, a constant.
)3(
c
( )
c
*0max
max
ρ  ρ 
=
, maximum density.
Step 1: Calculation for upwind scheme
For 
1
=
i
to
n
For 
2
=
  j
to
1
+
nx
 
)3).^1,(3).^,((*))2max^max/(*)/(( )1,(*),(*),1(
++=+
  ji  jidxdt    ji gm  ji gma  ji
 ρ  ρ  ρ  ρ  ρ  ρ 
EndEnd
Step 2: Calculation for velocity
For 
1
=
i
to
nt 
Numerical Simulation
35
 
 
( )
)2.^max/2).^(1(max*
ρ  ρ 
iiv
=
End
Step 3: Calculation for flux
For 
1
=
i
to
n
 
( )
)2.^max/3).^()((max*
ρ  ρ 
iiuiq
=
End
Step 4: Output
( )
 x
,
 ρ 
Step 5: Graph PresentationStep 6: Stop
4.3 Error estimation of the numerical scheme
Numerical Simulation
36

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