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Published by: madeshmb on Nov 07, 2009
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04/23/2013

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Introduction
1.1 Industry profileA Brief History of Information Technology
The information technology is not new to the world. It is been used from manyyears but they were in different forms and different techniques were used. As time passed the technology also went on changing, The Information Technology got a newdimension when it got the technology support. There are few stages which help us toknow about the changes happened in the Information Technology sector.
1.The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.
During this period the people were trying to use some symbols, pictures and tried tocommunicate by speaking to each other. By Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians createdsymbols, later The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels;the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.Sumerians' input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay. About2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on the papyrus plant and later, around 100 A.D., theChinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based. TheReligious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books" for future reference. TheEgyptians kept scrolls and Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of  papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together, later the number system started by Egyptian system ,The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle,the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom. The firstnumbering systems similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200A.D. by Hindus in India who created a nine-digit numbering system. Around 875A.D., the concept of zero was developed. And by using the zero and one thecomputers are operated.
 
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2. The Mechanical Age: 1450 - 1840
This was the stage where the machines were used to speed up the work and tomake the work easier. The First Information Explosion was by Johann Gutenberg whoinvented the movable metal-type printing process in 1450.the name ‘computer’ wasgiven to those people who were working with numbers. Under this stage the inventedthe first basic model of calculator and a slide rule. This by gradual development of  book indexes and the widespread by using the page numbers.
3. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940.
During this period the machines were used with the help of electricity to storeand retrieve the data. The few machines which were used during this period are radio,Morse Code machines, telegraph, electronic waves. The discovery of ways to harnesselectricity was the key advance made during this period. Knowledge and informationcould now be converted into electrical impulses. In the beginning otelecommunication around late 18
th
century Voltaic battery was found later in early1800s telegram was used. Again in the year 1835 Samuel Morse developed Morsecode in which dots & dashes were used. In the year 1876 Alexander Graham Bellinvented Telephone & Radio which is still in existence. Followed by the discoverythat electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the pointat which they originated. These two events led to the invention of the radio byGuglielmo Marconi in 1894. Then electromechanical computing was invented byHerman Hollerith and IBM. During this period the IBM invented a machine whichwas used to Paper tape stored data and program instructions. This machine was readyfor use on January 1942, it was built by using 8 feet tall, 51 feet long, 2 feet thick,weighed 5 tons, used about 750,000 parts.
4. The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present.
The generation of computers was found in this stage. Hear the computers weremade able to use the vacuum tubes. Then Eckert and Mauchly found first high speedGeneral-Purpose Computer using Vacuum Tubes called Electronic Numerical
 
3Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) in 1946. Then many machines came into existencelater personal computer was invented later even super computers have been used, nowlaptops & palm tops are widely used.By seeing the above four stages of the computer we can come to know the process of information technology is changing day by day. Now the computers are playing a tremendous role in the field of information technology. Now in the modern world no one let the opportunity so in IT sector there aremany companies which are playing in the market. They are:
1.2 MAJOR PLAYERS IN INDIA

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