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1. Campus Infrastructure Model

1. Campus Infrastructure Model

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Published by: xrasna on Nov 18, 2009
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12/19/2014

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1.Campus infrastructure model
The simplest Ethernet network infrastructure is composed of a single collision and broadcast domain.This type of network is referred to as a "flat" network because any traffic that is transmitted within thisnetwork is seen by all of the interconnected devices even if they are not the intended destination of thetransmission. The benefit of this type of network is that it is very simple to install and configure, so it isa good fit for home networking and small offices. The downside of a flat network infrastructure is that itdoes not scale well as demands on the network increase. Some issues with nonhierarchical networksinclude:
Traffic collisions on the network increase as devices are added, impeding traffic flow on the network.
Broadcast traffic increases as devices are added to the network causing over utilization of network resources.
Problem isolation on a large flat network can be difficult.The table of Network Devices shows the key network hardware devices in a nonhierarchical network and the function of each.
Layer 2 network issues
Layer 2 switches can significantly improve performance in a CSMA/CD network when used in place of hubs. This is because each switch port represents a single collision domain and the device connected tothat port does not have to compete with other devices to access the media. Ideally, every host on a givennetwork segment is connected to its own switch port eliminating all media contention as the switchmanages network traffic at Layer 2. An additional benefit of Layer 2 switching is that large broadcastdomains can be broken up into smaller segments by assigning switch ports to different VLANsegments.For all their benefits, some drawbacks still exist in a nonhierarchical-switched network:
If switches are not configured with VLANs, very large broadcast domains may be created.
 
If VLANs are created, traffic cannot move between VLANs using only Layer 2 devices.
As the Layer 2 network grows, the potential for bridge loops increase. Therefore, the need to use aSpanning Tree Protocol becomes imperative.
Multilayer switching
Multilayer switching is hardware-based switching and routing, integrated into a single platform. Insome cases, the frame and packet forwarding operation is handled by the same specialized hardwareASIC and other specialized circuitry. A multilayer switch does everything to a frame and packet that atraditional switch or router does, including the following:
Provides multiple simultaneous switching paths
Segments broadcast and failure domains
Provides destination specific frame forwarding based on Layer 2 information
Determines the forwarding path based on Layer 3 information
Validates the integrity of the Layer 2 frame and Layer 3 packet via checksums and other methods
Verifies packet expiration and updates accordingly
Processes and responds to any option information
Updates forwarding statistics in the Management Information Base (MIB)
Applies security and policy controls, if required
Provides optimal path determination
The more expensive or sophisticated multilayer switches are modular and support a wide variety of media types and port densities.
Has the ability to support QoS
Has the ability to support VoIP and in-line power requirementsBecause it is designed to handle high-performance LAN traffic, a multilayer switch can be placedanywhere within the network, cost-effectively replacing the traditional switches and routers. Generally,however, a multilayer switch may be more than is required to provide end systems access to network resources.Enterprise Composite Network model:
Building Access layer
– The Building Access layer is used to grant user access to network devices. In anetwork campus, the Building Access layer generally incorporates switched LAN devices with portsthat provide connectivity to workstations and servers. In the WAN environment, the Building Accesslayer at remote sites may provide access to the corporate network across WAN technology.
Building Distribution layer
– The Building Distribution layer aggregates the wiring closets and usesswitches to segment workgroups and isolate network problems. Routing and packet manipulation occur in the Building Distribution layer.
Building Core layer
– The Building Core layer is a high-speed backbone and is designed to switch packets as fast as possible. Because the core is critical for connectivity, it must provide a high level of availability and adapt to changes very quickly. Routing and packet manipulation above Layer 2 should be avoided in the Core, if possible.
 
Management Module
The primary goal of the management module is to facilitate the secure management of all devices andhosts within the enterprise architecture.
Core Module
The core module in the network architecture is nearly identical to the core module of any other network architecture. It merely routes and switches traffic as fast as possible from one network to another.
Building Distribution Module
This module provides distribution layer services to the building switches. These include routing, qualityof service (QoS), and access control. Requests for data flow into these switches and onto the core, andresponses follow the identical path in reverse.
Building Access Module
This module is described as the extensive network portion that contains end-user workstations, phones, and their associated Layer 2 access points. Its primary goal is to provide services to end users.
Server Module
The server module's primary goal is to provide application services to end users anddevices. Traffic flows on the server module are inspected by on-board intrusion detection within theLayer 3 switches.
Edge Distribution Module
This module aggregates the connectivity from the various elements at the edge. Traffic is filtered androuted from the edge modules and routed into the core.The Enterprise Composite Network model contains these three major functional areas:
Enterprise Campus
– The Enterprise Campus functional area contains the modules required to build ahierarchical, highly robust campus network that offers performance, scalability, and availability. This

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